Biosecurity In The Laboratory

General introduction about biosafety laboratory
People working in laboratories always face the risk of transmitting pathogens. Many cases of infectious disease due to laboratory biosecurity.
In Vietnam, to ensure the laboratory's biosafety, the Ministry of Health has set up a Biosafety Advisory Board comprised of members from the Ministry of Health and related ministries.
General principles of biosafety
Classification of pathogenic microorganisms by risk group has the following factors:
Ability of pathogenic microorganisms to host.
Mode of transmission and host factors. These factors are influenced by the existing community immunity, the density and movement of host populations, the presence of disease vectors and the standards of sanitation.
Effective preventive measures such as vaccination or use of serum, sanitation of drinking water and food, control of animal or insect sources.
Treatment measures such as passive immunity, active immunity after exposure and use of antibiotics and antiviral drugs, should be considered the possibility of emergence of resistant strains of microorganisms


Based on the above characteristics, pathogenic microorganisms are divided into 4 risk groups:
Risk group 1 (none or low risk of infection in the community): Microorganisms that do not cause disease in humans or animals
Risk group 2 (risk of infecting the individual but less likely to infect the community): The causative agent is capable of causing disease to humans or animals, but does not become a major hazard to personnel. test kit, community, pet or environment.


Biosecurity In The Laboratory

. There will be effective prophylaxis and treatment.
Risk group 3 (high risk of infection to the individual, low risk to the community): causes serious illness to humans and animals, but under normal conditions will not spread from one individual to another. There will be effective treatment and prevention.
Risk group 4 (high risk of infection to individuals and the community): causes serious illness to humans and animals, easily transmits from one individual to another. There is no treatment and prevention
widespread
Microbiological risk assessment
The person conducting the risk assessment must have an understanding of the specific characteristics of the microorganisms to be tested, the equipment, routines used, the storage facilities and available facilities.
The person in charge of the laboratory or the person in charge of biosafety is responsible for ensuring adequate and timely hazard assessment to ensure that the equipment and facilities are suitable for testing.
The risk assessment must be conducted periodically and supplemented as necessary to determine the appropriate level of biosafety, choose the necessary equipment, personal protective equipment properly, and develop regular standards. along with other safety measures to ensure the highest safety at work.


Biosecurity In The Laboratory

.
Biosafety level of the laboratory
Determining a biosecurity level for the laboratory should take into consideration the type of microorganisms tested, the equipment available, the standards of practice and the processes necessary to conduct the work safely. The relationship between microbiological risk group and laboratory biosafety level is shown in the following table:
Risk group BIO-level Applied practice standards Physical facilities /
biosafety equipment
1 Level 1 Basic research and teaching Good microbiology No special requirements, regular test benches
2 Level 2 Primary health care; diagnostic facilities; Research Use of protective clothing, with bio-hazard signs Testing table; Biosafety cabinets when performing tests may present a risk of aerosolization
3 Level 3 Special diagnostic and research services As in level 2 and additional use of special protective clothing, access control, directional airflow for BSCs or basic equipment for all operations
4 Level 4 Units with dangerous specimens As level 3 and additional access to the air lock, take a shower before leaving, remove specialized waste. Biological safety cabinets Class 3 or positive pressure protective clothing with Biological safety cabinets, level 2, two-door autoclave, air filter, exhaust
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