Damage Is Hazardous
According to Whittaker (1969), the creatures on earth are divided into five precepts:
Monera: Including prokaryotes such as bacteria, actinomyces, green algae.
Protoctista: These are unicellular eukaryotes.
Plantae: plants (eukaryotes).
Animalia: Animals (eukaryotes)
Fungi: These are eukarytes such as yeast, mold, and mushroom
Thus, fungi (fungi), the term used to refer to all members of the fungus world, are real nuclei and cell walls, reproduced by spore generation. They do not have chlorophyll, heterotrophic nutrition (heterotrophic) thanks to the rich yeast system that helps decompose organic substances in the environment.
Medical mushroom is the study of the relationship between pathogenic fungi and human health in general
Fungal pathology includes botulism due to mycotoxicosis (fungal) or fungal infection, fungal allergy and fungal infection However, medical fungus mainly refers to fungal infections because it is the most important area for human health where prevention and treatment are still limited.
. SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF VIOLATION
The shape of the fungi varies according to the species and the living conditions of the environment; But in general, the fungi grow mainly in two forms: yeast seed cells and mycelium.
Cell granular form
Are round or oval cells, about 5 - 10 µm in diameter. From these cells the buds emerge. Buds grow, when the stem cells will split into a separate cell. The buds can grow into long sections, forming new buds with the same progression to form false mycelium (pseudothyphae)
These are long slender tubes with a diameter of about 5-10 µm, branched by partitions that can smoothly or divide mycelium into many cells (multiple compartments). The hyphae are woven together to form a mycelium or mycelium and when they grow on an inoculated culture called a fungus. The size of the fungus is usually large, can spread throughout the surface of the petri can.
Image of mycelium
Most of the fungi are present throughout the world. A few species exist only in certain regions such as Penicillium marneffei distributed in Southeast Asia, Histoplasma duboisii occurs in Africa, America, Blatomyces spp. located in North and South America ..
Germs spread from place to place thanks to wind, water or bird droppings, gnawing ...
Currently about 100,000 types of fungi have been discovered but only about 150 are capable of causing disease in humans and animals. Most fungi live saprophytically, a few parasites on the body of living organisms.
In a microscopic state:
Fungi grow in nature (soil, water, bark, leaves ..) or on living organisms (humans, animals) or both. When the fungus exists in the external environment, using organic matter that is available in soil, water or from dead organisms, called exosaprophytes.
Placing them on the surface of living organisms, using skin debris such as skin flakes, sweat, and fat as a source of nutrition, called episaprophutes. Endosaprophytes reside in the organism, but their nutrients are excreted waste in feces, urine, vaginal fluid, etc. (endo - exosaprophytism) such as Cryptococus neoformans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Geotrichum candidum ...
In parasitic state: Fungi can parasitize on humans (anthropophile), in animals (zoophile) but there are many species, mainly living saprophytic and only parasitic when favorable conditions exist.
For example: Microsporum canis: zoophile
Trichophyton rumbrum: anthropophile.
Aspergillus spp, Trichophyton mentagrophytes mainly live saprophytic but can cause disease in humans.
Fungal reproduction is important because it helps the fungus survive and spread in both natural and living organisms. In addition, spawning patterns and reproductive structures are essential for identifying fungal pathogens. Fungi have many different types of reproduction, generally can be divided into two forms: asexual and sexual. Both forms of reproduction are created
Asexual reproduction by budding, from a mother cell can give birth to one or more buds (blastospore) as in the case of Candida spp.
Sexual reproduction: two yeast seed cells work together to form sacspores (ascospore) located in the sporangia (ascus), for example, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Fungi filament mycelium broken down into many spores (arthrospores) found in Trichophyton spp., Epidermophyton sp.
., Microsporm spp ...
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