Developmental Cycle Of Malaria Parasites
For Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale, in addition to the immediate development of the above parasite in the liver, there is the presence of hypnozoites in the liver: the infection invades the liver cells but does not continue to grow. right away to produce schizophrenia, which stays in the liver cells
The stage when the malaria parasite developed asexually on the human body
Stage in the liver
If the mosquitoes carry malaria, the parasite will concentrate in the salivary glands of the mosquito in the form of a sporozoite (sporozoite), which is a diamond-like filament, about 10 - 15 dàim long with a central core. When a mosquito bites a person, the insecticide will follow the saliva of the m2 mosquito to enter the complete system. After 30 minutes of circulation in the circulatory system, the worm will reach the liver, invade the liver cells and grow there
In liver cells, the first median parasite is about 3 µm in size with a nucleus and a slender cytoplasmic ring which then develops to the liver schizont (size of the liver schizont), which varies in size from 30-70. µm, contains thousands of identical or called separator fragments (Plasmodium falciparum: 30,000; Plasmodium vivax: 10,000; Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale: 15,000)
After these liver fragments break, release the coincident into the blood. The stage of development in the liver varies depending on the parasitic species. For Plasmodium falciparum it is 5 ½ - 7 days, Plasmodium vivax 6-8 days, Plasmodium ovale 9 days and Plasmodium malariae is 14-16 days
For Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale, in addition to the immediate development of the above parasite in the liver, there is the presence of hypnozoites in the liver: the infection invades the liver cells but does not continue to grow right away to produce schizophrenia, which stays in the liver cells.
A few months, even years later, for some unknown reason, new forms of sleep develop into schizophrenia, and then schizophrenia rupture, throwing pieces of blood into the blood, causing recurrent fevers.
. cold. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae alone cannot sleep in the liver.
Stage in erythrocytes
The fragments that are interpreted from the liver enter the red blood cells to develop into trophic (trophozoite). From the trophic form it will develop into a schizont containing many identical fragments. The number of pieces in a schizophrenia varies according to the type of malaria parasite
The schizophrenia in the blood will rupture so that pieces that are 15 µm in size penetrate the other red blood cells and continue the cycle in the red blood cells (for nursing and then schizophrenia ...).
. The erythrocyte cycle lasts 48 hours for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, 72 hours for Plasmodium malariae and 50 hours for Plasmodium ovale. After many such cycles, a number of identical worms develop into sexually active gametocyte (male and female gametes). They do not develop further, but only lie in the red blood cells waiting for the female Anopheles spp, suck a few stomachs to develop.
The stage when malaria parasites develop sexually in mosquitoes
When the female Anopheles spp mosquito bites a person with malaria, the malaria parasites in the blood will be sucked into the mosquito's stomach, but only gametes will continue to grow A few minutes after entering the mosquito's stomach, there is an exflagellation phenomenon in the male gametes to produce 4 to 8 microgamete, while the female gamete becomes a macrogamete (macrogamete).
The process of developing from gametes to micro gametes and gametes is completed within 20 minutes in the mosquito's stomach. A micro gametes enters a gametophyte and a zygote (zygote) is formed (fertilized egg).
Within 18 - 24 hours this egg becomes a mobile egg (ookinete), which passes through the mosquito's stomach wall and develops into an oocyst located on the outside and under the stomach lining. ruler from 40 - 55 µm.
The follicle develops into a sporocyst (capsule), which contains thousands of sporozoites.
. The cysts will burst, the free ones will turn toward the mosquito's salivary glands and concentrate in the salivary glands.
When mosquitoes bite, they will follow saliva into the human body to continue the development cycle in the person It has been estimated that each time a mosquito bite has less than 100 parasites infiltrating the human body.
Growth cycle of malaria parasites
The duration of parasite development in mosquitoes lasts about 1-2 weeks, depending on the temperature of the external environment. The higher the outside environment temperature, the shorter the time the secondary parasite develops in mosquitoes.
If the outside temperature is lower than 16◦C, Plasmodium vivax will not grow in mosquitoes (18◦C for Plasmodium falciparum), and if the temperature is higher than 45◦C the parasite will stop growing.
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