Causes: Fasciola is caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica. These tapeworms mainly parasitize on herbivores such as buffaloes, cows, etc. And then they cause disease in humans.
Flukes of adult liver are shaped like a leaf, flat body and thin banks, size 20-30 x 10-12 mm, white pink or red gray. In the flukes of the parasite in the bile ducts, in case of anomalous abnormalities, the parasite may be ectopic as in the muscles, in the skin, or in the peritoneum, etc.
Adult flukes lay their eggs in the bile ducts down the intestines and then in the stool into the environment. Eggs of large liver flukes have the largest size of all the fluke species, the average size of eggs is 140 x 80µm, sometimes up to 152-198 x 72-94µm (Tomimura and Nishitani, discovered in 1976). )
Eggs diverge into the environment, encounter water, and the liver fluke eggs hatch into hairy larvae and parasitize into snails, where they will develop into tail larvae They then leave the snail and attach to aquatic plants to create cysts or swim freely in the water. People or cattle who ingest aquatic plants or drink uncooked water with this larva will become infected with giant fluke.
The development cycle of the large liver fluke
The life cycle of a giant liver fluke and its invasion process cause disease in humans
Eggs from molasses are excreted in the feces into the environment
Eggs encounter water environment.
The feathered larvae (miracidium) hatch from the eggs.
The intermediate snail transmits the disease and the large liver fluke larva develops in the snail.
Ceraria left the snails to swim in the water.
Metacercaria live in aquatic plants
Herbivores or larvae of large liver fluke from aquatic plants or undercooked water, larvae into the stomach, through the gastrointestinal tract and abdominal cavity and then onto the liver and parasites in the sugar honey
Flukes in the liver fluke: According to statistics till 2012, 52 provinces have been found to have large liver fluke disease with more than 20,000 patients. The Northern provinces with the highest number of infected people are Hanoi, Ha Tinh and Nghe An. In addition, there are other provinces with infected people such as Binh Dinh, Quang Ngai, Phu Yen and Gia Lai.
Harms of the disease: Fasciola flukes parasitizes in bile ducts and destroys the liver organization causing lesions with heterogeneous necrosis organization, easily confused with liver tumors and liver abscess.
. common when infected with large liver fluke. Flukes of large liver parasites in the liver will create small abscesses, causing congestion in the liver, thickened bile deformation causing inflammation and fibrosis.
In case of ectopic parasite, pathological manifestations often cause lesions, necrosis in organizations with inflammatory and fibrosis reactions.
- Itchy skin, itching do not find the cause, dermatological treatment does not all itch, hives
- Some cases will be poor appetite, weight loss, digestive disorders.
- Mainly is pain around the liver, sometimes epigastric pain.
- May be accompanied by toxic infections.
Testing for eggs in bile or fecal fluid (the rate of finding eggs in stool is very low)
Serological diagnosis by ELISA with Fasciola is the main antigen.
A complete blood count revealed elevated eosinophils
Imaging using ultrasound and computerized tomography (CT. Scanner) or MRI magnetic resonance imaging.
Do not eat raw vegetables and do not drink uncooked water.
Early detection of disease and specific treatment measures
Prevention for both cattle.
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