Flukes And What To Know
I've been coughing for months, sometimes coughing up blood (sometimes blood is brown, sometimes bright red). Body fatigue, weakness, chest pain. I tried going to the hospital for a pulmonary test but the result was negative. After that, I had further tests for helminth parasites, which tested positive for lung fluke (Paragonimus). Now I am bewildered whether it is dangerous or not? How to treat and prevent diseases? Hope the doctor give me advice!
Flukes is caused by tapeworms of the genus Paragonimus. Out of 40 species of lung fluke, there are over 10 species causing disease in humans and mainly Paragonimus westermani, while in Vietnam is Paragonimus heterotremus.
Flukes are as big as coffee beans (equal to small peanuts), 7-13mm long, 4-6mm wide, red or pink white.
Egg size: 80-10μmx50-67μm (P
Flukes are mainly parasitic in the lungs, they nest in the small bronchus of human or animal lungs.
. In each flukes almost two children and red pus fluid, surrounded by fibrous sheath with artificial blood vessels.
Flukes life cycle and the process of invasion causes disease in humans
Flukes of the lungs lay their eggs, eggs sputum down the throat into the environment or in the stool when swallowing sputum, the eggs fall into the water environment.
In the environment, the egg grows and hatches hairy larvae.
The hairy larvae enter the snails and develop into tail larvae
The tail larvae leave the snails, swim freely in the water, enter the freshwater shrimp and crabs, and then lose the tail to develop into cysts in the flesh and viscera of shrimp and crab.
In Vietnam, a species of Potamicus sp, a larva of lung fluke were discovered (this species lives in mountainous rock streams such as Lai Chau, Son La
People (or animals) who eat shrimp, freshwater crabs containing uncooked cyst larvae such as grilled crabs, crab sauce, etc.
After eating: the larvae enter the stomach and intestines, penetrate the gastrointestinal tract into the abdominal cavity, and then in pairs through the diaphragm and pleura into the lung bronchus to form nests there.
The time from eating the larvae to the fluke is 5.
.5 - 6 weeks.
The life expectancy of a fluke is about 6-16 years, but some patients who have it for more than 30 years do not recover.
The lungs are the main habitat for flukes, but they can parasitize in other places such as pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, under the skin, liver, intestines, brain, testicles, etc. Flukes of the lungs form abscesses and cause specific symptoms
Harm of the disease: Flukes of the lung parasites in the lungs create abscesses in the bronchi of the lungs causing coughing up blood, can burst the abscess causing pneumothorax and pleural effusion and possibly death. When the fluke parasites in the pleura, causing pleural effusion. In some cases, flukes may be parasitized in other places such as the brain (especially in the occipital and temporal lobes), sometimes in the spinal cord, thoracic muscle or under the skin, spleen, and abdomen. pericardium and cardiac muscle, mediastinum, uterus, fallopian tubes, etc. cause complex and life-threatening symptoms.
Clinical diagnosis: the clinical manifestations of pulmonary tapeworm depend on the parasitic location of the fluke and the extent of its manifestations depending on the patient's health.
The main symptom manifestations of the disease such as:
Cough lasts for months, sometimes even years.
The disease progresses in exacerbations, the time between episodes and the duration of each episode depends on the degree of disease and other problems of the patient
Coughing up blood, blood that is bright red or brown or rusting, sometimes coughing up lots of fresh blood at the same time, but most coughs with little blood mixed with sputum. This is a symptom easily confused with tuberculosis.
Most patients do not have a fever and are less likely to collapse. This is a sign to distinguish it from tuberculosis.
Chest tightness, feeling short of breath is a nonspecific functional symptom.
Listening to the lungs with snoring and wheezing is non-specific symptoms.
Pleural effusion when parasitic fluke in the pleura. The pulmonary effusion effusion quickly recedes after aspiration of lung fluid and especially there is always thick pleural adhesion but no calcified image is visible.
Most patients do not have infections like tuberculosis.
The test looks for tapeworm eggs in sputum, or pleural fluid.
Pictures of lesions are shown on a chest x-ray.
Antibodies increase in blood.
Measures to prevent lung fluke:
- Not eating uncooked crabs and crabs is a feasible method that is both effective and less expensive.
- Specific treatment for patients and animals carrying germs.
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