Flukes, Manifestation And Prevention

Updated information on 7/3/2016. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated food-borne fluke infections (Foodborne trematodiases) to affect more than 56 million people globally. The disease is caused by flukes, of which the most common are Clonorchis, Opisthorchis, Fasciola and Paragonimus. People who are more susceptible to infection by eating raw or undercooked foods such as fish, crustaceans and plants are hiding places for the moment of parasites in the larval stage.
Spread of disease
Food-borne flukes are zoonotic, that is, they spread naturally from vertebrates to humans and vice versa. However, this spread is not direct because the associated pathogenic parasites become contagious only after the completion of the complex life cycle involving stages in intermediate hosts. The first intermediate host in all cases is a freshwater snail, while the second is different with clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, the host is a freshwater fish, while paragonimiasis the host is one. crustaceans, while fascioliasis does not require a second intermediate host but the final host is a mammal

An infected person is when ingesting the second intermediate host that has been infected with the larval forms of the parasite, in the case of a massive liver fluke that the infected person ingests with the larvae along with the vegetables aquatic life to which they attach
Symptoms of disease
The public health burden of infection with early stage fluke infections is usually mild and unnoticed because there are no symptoms or very little On the contrary, the condition of the body will be exhausted whole body and severe pain can occur, usually in the abdomen especially in cases of infection with large liver fluke. Chronic infection will be associated with serious illness, the symptoms mainly located in the special organs and reflecting the location, the place of adult flukes in the body.


Flukes, Manifestation And Prevention

. With clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, adult flukes reside in the small bile ducts of the liver, causing inflammation and fibrosis of adjacent tissues in the body and causing biliary tract cancer, a serious and can cause death. of bile duct cancer. With fascioliasis, adult flukes live in the gallbladder and larger bile ducts, where they produce inflammation, fibrosis, obstruction, abdominal pain and jaundice; cirrhosis and severe anemia. In the case of paragonimiasis, the living site of the fluke is the lung tissue that causes symptoms that can be confused with tuberculosis: chronic cough with bloody sputum, chest pain, shortness of breath, and fever. Flukes to the brain are the most serious and dangerous

Disease prevention
Prevention of foodborne infections to reduce the risk of infection and control the incidence of the related disease, public health veterinary measures and food safety practices to prevent , reduce the risk of infection, while controlling disease incidence improves access to treatment by using safe and effective medicines (deworming agents) Treatment can be provided through preventive chemotherapy or treatment of individual cases, preventive chemotherapy that involves an approach based on populations where everyone in the a given area or area is given medication without being able to distinguish their status, recommended in places where large numbers of individuals are infected
WHO response
WHO's mandate for the prevention of food-borne fluke infections is part of an integrated approach to the prevention of forgotten tropical diseases (NTDs), including the development of strategic orientations and Recommendations; support and mapping in endemic countries; support of pilot interventions and prevention programs in endemic countries; support for monitoring and evaluation of implementation activities for implementation; documenting the burden of food-borne fluke worms and the implications of the interventions implemented. WHO pushes the introduction of food-borne fluke infections into the goals of preventive chemotherapy interventions with the aim of ensuring that their worst outcomes are: (bile duct cancer and other relevant agencies) will be completely prevented. WHO negotiated an agreement with Novartis Pharma AG, under which the company awarded Triclabendazole to treat human fascioliasis and human fluke-free flukes. them, WHO invites all circulating countries to take advantage of this donation program.


Flukes, Manifestation And Prevention

. In 2015, about 600,000 people were reported and received food-borne drug treatment worldwide, the largest program for the prevention of food-borne fluke infections..

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