Nail fungus (ONYCHOMYCOSIS)
The ocean about the nail
The nail grows directly from the epidermis (epidermis) and is made up of many layers of hard, horny substances called keratin. Keratin is also a basic component of hair and the outermost layer of skin. Nails do not have living cells and grow from a special group of cells called the matrix (matrix) that has many blood vessels, located under the nail (lunular). The halo is semicircular, white, visible on the thumb. When the intercellular layer is damaged, the nail cannot grow. Unlike bones, calcium has no effect on nail growth.
By the fourth month of pregnancy, the fetus begins to have nails on the tips of their toes and toes. Nails grow continuously throughout life, unlike hair, growing for a few years, suspending for a while and then growing again
- Nails grow towards the tip of the fingers and toes, rather than growing vertically like hair, due to a layer of skin surrounding the foot of the nail, causing limited growth forward
- Every day, the nail is about 0.1mm long, which is from 3 to 5 mm per month.
. Nails grow 2 to 3 times faster than toenails. It takes at least 6 months to complete and completely replace a foundation.
Image of toenail fungus
- Nails grow slowly in the elderly, grow faster in pregnant women, men and young people.
- Nails on the long fingers grow faster than the short fingers, possibly because they are more susceptible to injury, so the middle finger nails grow faster, while the thumb nails grow slowly.
- Nails grow quickly in your dominant hand, because blood is rushed up a lot
- In the summer, the nail grows faster than in the winter, because in the summer, the hands and feet move a lot, the blood comes a lot Similarly, during the day, nails grow faster at night.
- Small injuries to the nail, such as biting the nail, will stimulate the nail to heal, so it grows faster. Similarly, when the skin is constantly rubbed, it will create solid callous cells.
- Malnutrition, fever, severe illness will delay nail growth.
- Nails grow fast in people with hyperthyroidism.
- Fingers typing on computer keyboard, typewriter, piano keys all stimulate fast growing nails.
There are many people suffering from fungal nail disease, their toenails not only make it uncomfortable, itchy but also affect the aesthetic ..
Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection, accounting for up to 30% of diagnoses of superficial mycosis, is a common disease in people with hands and feet often wet as people selling beverages, selling fruits, chefs, farmers, cooks, washing clothes, hairdresser washing hair, washing cars, raising animals ...
Fungus invades starting from the free bank or lateral banks and entering the scion.
Caused by many fungi, there are three main groups:
- Mycelium (dermatophytes): microsporum, trichophyton, epidermophyton;
- Yeast (candida);
- Mold: seopulariopsis, hendersonula ..
People suffer from this disease because their hands and feet are often wet, enabling the fungus to invade, develop and cause disease. When a fungal infection is present in the nails, it spreads quickly when conditions are favorable, such as a constantly wet environment, spread from finger to toe on the same hand, foot or can spread to the hand. the other foot and the disease progresses from months to years.
2. Clinical symptoms
Rarely, all ten nails or ten toenails will get sick.
The nail surface is rough, covered with fine bran-like scales, with vertical or horizontal stripes. The lesion is yellowish, or dark brown in color.
Nails become brittle and fragile. Underneath the nail may also be damaged and the nail may peel off. The nails may give off an unpleasant odor.
There are three forms of nail lesions:
+ Horn-thick nail: horn-thick nail, under the nail, has a small horn.
+ Atrophic nails: nails are eroded, gradually eroding from the free bank to the foot of the nail.
+ Normal nails are white or yellow.
Clinical manifestations of each fungus:
- Infections on the lateral and distal areas of the nail are the most common forms of nail dystrophy, usually caused by dermatophyte, sometimes secondary mold.
Image of nail fungus
- White nail surface is a typical form of dermatophyte infection caused by trichophyton mentagrophytes, usually uncommon
- At the base of the nail, usually secondary to chronic perioral inflammation caused by candidiasis. Candidiasis around the nail is more common in the nails, less common in the toenails.
- Dystrophy of the nail is the last form of nail dystrophy when the entire nail is destroyed as a result of the three types of infection.
Testing: look for local fungi by direct microscopy and microscopic examination or culture of specimens in a special culture medium.
Topical antifungal medication such as
- Disinfectant color solution: castellani,
- Damage thinning drugs to increase the permeability of the drug such as salicylic acid 5%;
- Antifungal drugs:
+ Group azole (ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, sulconazole, oxiconazole, econazole).
+ Ciclopirox Olamine.
+ Amorolfine (loceryl)
+ Allylamine group (natifine, terbinafine).
+ Group of acids (salicylic, undecylenic).
+ Group of polyenes (nystatin).
How to apply: Wash and scrape off the nail lesion, dry the nail, then apply medicine to the surface of the nail and around the nose.
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