How Does Flukes Of Diphyllobothrium Latum Cause Disease In Humans?
Fish tapeworm disease begins when people eat raw or undercooked fish containing tapeworms. Diphyllobothrium latum is the largest sized tapeworm, living mainly in the small intestine of humans. In addition, fish tapeworm parasites in dogs, bears and mammals eat fish.
Figure of Diphyllobothrium latum fish tapeworm
D. adult latum is the longest parasitic parasite in humans, the average length of 3 - 10m, sometimes up to 20m, with about 3,000 - 4,000 burning
. Burning an old flukes does not leave the body like other tapeworms, burning D. latum worms with a shorter length than the horizontal. The genital hole in the middle of the burn is located near the upper edge, the vaginal opening connects to the uterus, is located next to the sexual hole and backward. The uterus is brown, shaped like a flower and is located in the center of the flukes. The eggs are laid from the ovary and then distributed in the faeces
The process of development of the Diphyllobothrium latum fish flukes
During development, D. latum needs to pass through two intermediate hosts living underwater.
. One is a crustacean (cyclops or Diaptomus), the tapeworm eggs disperse into the environment, meet with the egg hatching into coracidium hair, then be swallowed by the crustacean and transformed into procercoid larvae in the crustacean. The second intermediate host of flukes is the fish (salmon, milkfish, ..) that eat crustaceans infected with proceroid larvae In fish body, procercoid will turn into a plerocercoid larva (also known as sparganum) shaped like a worm. If the infected larvae are eaten by larger fish, the plerocercoid larvae will turn to larger fish and remain in a state of waiting for the opportunity to be swallowed by the permanent host. This cycle will be closed when humans or weasels, dogs, cats ... eat fish meat containing plerocercoid larvae.
. In the small intestine, plerocercoid larvae attach to the intestinal wall by two suction channels, they absorb nutrients through special osmosis, fish tapes absorb vitamin B12 a lot, and develop into adult tapeworms in about 30 day. A person can be infected with several flukes, sometimes up to 70 - 80 heads D.latum can parasitize at the same time with other species of tapeworms (tapeworms, cows) in the same person. Adult flukes live about 20 years.
Manifestations of infection with Diphyllobothrium latum fish tapeworm infection
The majority of patients infected with D. latum usually show no symptoms when infected. When infected, the disease will have clearer symptoms such as digestive disorders, abdominal pain, fatigue, paralysis, ...
can lead to severe complications such as intestinal obstruction, vomiting out multiple yards of fluke causing suffocation. , sometimes cause cardiovascular collapse. The disease caused by D. latum band is characterized by anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, Biermer type, hyperemia, large and immature red blood cells.
Diagnosis of Diphyllobothrium latum fish tapeworm disease
Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, anemia living in endemic areas, stool tests to find tapeworm eggs to confirm the diagnosis.
Patients infected with D. latum are treated with niclosamide or praziquantel. However, praziquantel has some side effects such as headache, dizziness, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea and sometimes skin allergies ..
. Niclosamide's side effects are minimal, because the drug is not absorbed in the sugar. Digest. When using these drugs, make sure to kill the flukes because the head is left in the gut and it will continue to grow again. If the patient is anemic, take more vitamin B12 and iron until the blood count is restored.
Prevention of Diphyllobothrium latum fish tapeworm disease
Prevent D. latum infection by not eating raw or undercooked fish If eating sushi or sashimi, first freeze the fish at -10 ° C (or lower) for about two days to kill the larvae. Do not indiscriminately discharge, in water (rivers, lakes, ...
When you've accidentally ingested food suspected of having a tapeworm infection, the best way to prevent it is to get a bowel exam and have a blood test to know if you have fish tapeworm infection, Diphyllobothrium latum, to get timely treatment. time
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