How To Take Blood Samples To Test For Helminths, Biochemistry, Hematology And Blood Sample Preservation
Blood samples should be taken when hungry or after 4-6 hours of eating, preferably in the morning without eating or drinking, except water. If in an emergency, it is necessary to draw blood, it must be clearly stated when the patient ate and the time to draw blood. Particularly for helminth testing, blood can be drawn at any time without fasting.
In case of taking blood as a lipid test group, it should be held for at least 12 hours.
Avoid sampling at the infusion site.
Avoid making blood samples bloody.
Taking venous blood:
Inform and clearly explain the patient's purpose, employment (if the patient is awake), the patient or coma must explain to the patient's family members.
The patient's hands must be clean, if dirty, wash their hands with soap before drawing blood
Blood should be taken early in the morning If the patient is newly arrived, it is necessary to rest for 15-20 minutes before drawing blood.
Explain to the patient before taking blood so that he is not surprised and will work with the medical staff.
. In some tests such as blood gas testing, it is necessary to explain thoroughly to the patient, so that the patient is comfortable in cooperation and peace of mind. Avoid the shock of some patients when taking blood. May lead to parameters that need quantification will be skewed.
Asepsis: pumps, needles
Other equipment: alcohol pads, pints, test tubes labeled with the patient's name, age, ID, bed number, department. With or without anticoagulant depending on the test
The process of taking blood for biochemical tests:
Allow the patient to lie down or sit, stretch his arms comfortably on hard objects. If you are a child, you must have a babysitter so that the child does not struggle.
Reconcile patient information with the appointment slip: ID number, ask the patient to read the name and year of birth.
See all tests ordered to select the appropriate blood test tubes to avoid affecting results.
. For the common biochemical test group, use a serum separator test tube (without anticoagulant) or a tube with heparin anticoagulant to separate plasma. In the case of tests requiring high stability, select an appropriate test tube (for example, tubes containing NaF or oxaloacetate to stabilize blood sugar, ..)
Paste the ID code and write the patient's name, year of birth on the blood test tubes to avoid confusion.
Choose the appropriate vein, which usually takes blood to fold at the elbow (the venous system M), puts the pillow under the area where the blood is to be taken, children often take places where the vein does not move and can be seen clearly: temples, veins of neck, back of hands.
Remove the syringe from its container, check if the needle and syringe is clear.
Tie the syringe about 5cm above the blood line.
Antiseptic skin area blood drawn in a spiral.
Insert the needle into a vein and then open the syringe wire.
Pull back on the syringe gently and drain all the blood needed to avoid air bubbles.
Remove the syringe wire, remove the needle, gently press the cotton at the injection site, telling the patient to continue holding the cotton gently at the injection site
Apply individual tape to the patient.
Remove the needle, inject blood gently into the test tube to avoid causing air bubbles, and close the stopper.
Place the syringe on a 45-degree test tube wall.
Slowly inject blood into the test tube into the tube wall to avoid rupture of red blood cells.
When the patient has multiple tests specified, priority should be given to the order in which blood is pumped in order to avoid the anticoagulants that affect the test results. The order of blood injection into the tube is usually used: serum tube - heparin tube - EDTA tube - citrate tube - NaF / oxalate tube. Absolutely do not extract blood from tubes with anticoagulant to tubes without anticoagulants.
The amount of blood given to the tube must follow the maximum indication line.
Shake gently to mix blood into anticoagulant.
Urgent tests should be moved to the analysis site as soon as possible.
Send the specimen and enclose the test paper to the laboratory.
Clean up the tools.
Put the needle in a sharps container, inject the syringe into a medical waste container.
Wipe dry and send to kill bacteria.
How to preserve specimens:
The plasma separates early within 1 hour after the blood is drawn, especially when doing electrolyte tests to avoid diffusion of potassium from red blood cells.
The serum must be removed 2 hours prior to the collection Keep at room temperature, put a stopper on evaporation and avoid contamination.
Serum and plasma allowed to be stored <4 hours at room temperature and 1-2 days at a temperature of 2-8 degrees C.
. Want to keep longer need to stay in the freezer and cover the sealed test tube.
Enzyme tests should be performed on fresh plasma or serum. Blood glucose determination should be done immediately because after 1 hour blood glucose concentration decreases 7%. While there are relatively stable substances at 20 degrees C for a long time such as uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides.
Samples used to make blood bilirunbin, if not analyzed, must be wrapped in black paper or kept cold to keep cool to avoid turning into biliverdin under the effect of sunlight.
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