Is The Disease Of Cyclospora Spp?
The first human case was described in Papua New Guinea in 1977. Over the next 15 years, many cases of diarrhea caused by this agent were recorded. The causative agent of human disease is Cyclospora cayetanensis.
1. CYCLOSPORA SPP
The spherical follicle, 8 - 10 đườngm in diameter, contains two follicles, each containing two germs
In old cystic eggs, there is an antiseptic in the follicle containing nucleus with a sticky membrane. Cystic acidification, necessary for infection, occurs in the open at 27 ° C - 32 ° C for 8 - 11 days
2. CYCLOSPORA SPP DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
People infected by swallowing old cystic eggs infect the form of Cyclospora cayetanensis.
. Cystic follicles in the small intestine, usually in the jejunum, invade small intestinal epithelial cells, develop perinatal cycle, active walls, these forms develop into mature schizophrenia containing 8 -12 pieces Infectious Disorders, schizophrenia, release of fragmentary fragments, invade other epithelial cells, and re-establish the pathogenesis cycle, these fragments belong to generation I, are asexual forms. After many cycles of generation I schizophrenia (the asexual form), the generation of schizophrenia II develops, which are sexual beings, each cell contains four identical fragments.
After invading the small intestinal epithelial cell, some of these pieces will produce a female gamet, others that will repeatedly divide and produce a male gamet. When released, a male gamete fertilizes with a female gamet, forming a zygote.
Zygotes, in turn, develop into cystic eggs, which are resistant to the environment
Time spores in the environment take from several days to 1 week. In culture, the spore takes about 10 -12 days to complete the process. Another empirical study, at the appropriate temperature, this process takes about 7-12 days, the appropriate temperature from 26◦C - 30◦C.
. People get infected by contaminated food or water. There is no person-to-person infection.
3. Epidemiological characteristics of CYCLOSPORA SPP
Cyclospora infections are found all over the world, outbreaks are widespread Endemic areas are at least 27 countries, mainly tropical countries, including Vietnam.
The overall incidence of the disease is from 1% - 15%, varies by season, and from year to year, children ≤9 years old, accounting for 70% - 80% of the cases, among which there are usually asymptomatic accounting for 72% - ninety four%; Asymptomatic infections account for a higher proportion in older children 10 - 18 years old; and adults> 17 years old; HIV prevalence is significantly higher than the overall prevalence of ≤ 4% of travelers who return from endemic areas with diarrhea due to this agent.
- Foodborne outbreaks: In Canada / United States: related to raspberry, basil; In Germany: Lettuce imported from Southern France / Southern Italy; In Mexico: watercress salad.
- Outbreak due to water: 14 cases of Cyclospora; tap water in dormitories, suspected infected people in water tanks.
The disease peaks in spring and early summer, germs spread mainly through contaminated food or water, not from person to person.
. CLINICAL PRESENTATION CYCLOSPORA SPP
The clinical manifestations of Cyclospora infection in residents living in endemic areas differ from those who visit these areas and those exposed in non-endemic areas.
For indigenous people in the endemic area, the infection is usually asymptomatic, especially for adults If so, it is rarer than people in other regions, even among HIV-infected people.
Symptomatic infection, incubation period of about 1-11 days, an average of 1 week, lasts up to 6 weeks before self-healing. The illness usually starts suddenly, but may have had a flu-like condition before.
Cyclospora cayetanensis causes enteritis, with severity varying with age, host resistance, and infection intensity. symptoms include: watery diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, bloating and cramping, vomiting, mild fever.
However, there are severe cases of patients with vomiting, weight loss, severe diarrhea and muscle pain. Typically, there are patients with diarrhea lasting for many days, a history of long travel to the endemic area.
Unless treated, the disease may recur.
It is worth noting that the common patient form is in immunocompromised individuals like AIDS patients.
5. DIAGNOSTIC DAMAGES BY CYCLOSPORA SPP
Clinical manifestations: Persistent diarrhea, especially in patients with a history of recent travel from endemic areas.
Testing: To detect Cyclospora is not a routine test for most laboratories. The clinician suspects the person who needs to specify a specific indication to find this agent.
Stool examination for cysts, however, detecting follicular eggs in feces is difficult, even for experienced people, thus requiring patients. . Dịch vụ: Thiết kế website, quảng cáo google, đăng ký website bộ công thương uy tín
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