Parasitic Meningitis

1. The concept of meningitis and parasitic meningitis
1. 1. Meningitis?
Meningitis is an inflammation of the protective membranes surrounding the spinal cord and brain, collectively called the meninges. Common agents of meningitis include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. There are also a number of chemical, physical, drug and cancerous agents that can cause meningitis.
1.2

Parasitic meningitis
Parasitic meningitis is one of the most common causes of eosinophilic meningitis, the cause of which is a parasite People with eosinophilic meningitis are when the body has more than 10 eosinophils / mm3 of CSF or eosinophilic components accounting for more than 10% of the cells in the CSF. The source of infection is mainly through the gastrointestinal tract by eating raw foods containing pathogens, less frequently, the parasite can pass through the skin when people are in contact with soil or workplace where germs are present.


Parasitic Meningitis

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Parasites known to be associated with meningitis include: pinworms (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), dendritic worms (Gnathostoma spinigerum), schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium), cysticercosis (Cysticercus cellulosae), roundworms dog / cat (Toxocara canis / Toxocara catis), and fluke (Paragonimus westermani).
Commonly found in Pacific islands, Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. There are also in Japan and China.
3
Causes of parasitic meningitis
31. Worm disease
Worms (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) are the most common cause of parasitic meningitis. Pinworm larvae have a neurophilic nature.
Reservoir: Rats (Bandicota and Rattus species).


Parasitic Meningitis

. The vermin that parasitize the pulmonary arteries of mice should be called "rat lungworms," which lay eggs in arteries and hatch into stage 1 larvae. The lungs then migrate up to the bronchi and then to the intestine, excreted in the stool.
Humans: eat snails that have uncooked larvae or eat raw vegetables that are sticky with mucus produced by snails or other mollusks. In the intestine, larvae travel through the intestinal wall and move into the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis (but very rarely cause damage to the spinal cord and brain parenchyma) and to the eyes, causing impaired vision or blindness eye.
Symptoms: Eosinophilic meningitis is usually seen after 2 weeks and dies at only 2-3%. In humans, on the surface of the brain and spinal cord, the parasite becomes terminal larvae that cannot develop into adult worms like in mice. Another type of vascular worm, Angiostrongylus costaricensis, parasites in small intestinal mesenteric arteries in the ileum region, causing ileoceal intestinal colitis for rats who are the final hosts.
3.2.


Parasitic Meningitis

. Disease caused by dendritic worms
The dendritic worm larvae can travel under the skin, reaching organs, the nervous system and the eye sockets.
Reservoir: Pigs, dogs, cats .. This is an animal-to-human disease that attaches to the intestinal wall of some animals such as pigs, dogs and cats, which are then excreted into feces and then developed into embryos. In water, they develop inside intermediate hosts (fish, frogs, clones, water snakes).
Humans: when eating foods made from poultry, fish, snakes carrying larvae or drinking water with uncooked larvae.
3.3. Diseases of dog roundworm and cat roundworm
Reservoir: Dogs and cats.


Parasitic Meningitis


Humans: Eating food contaminated with worm eggs (brought by flies), or worm eggs from the hands by contact with the soil but not washed before eating. In the human body, larvae of dog roundworm and cats can move to many different areas, to any area, there are symptoms in that area.
Symptoms: itchy skin, liver swelling, pericardial or pleural effusion, blindness and meningitis.
3.4. Cysticercosis
Life cycle of a tapeworm parasite: adult tapeworms parasitize in the small intestine of humans (the last host), producing eggs carrying embryonic cells and excreting faeces, when pigs are ingested ( Pigs are intermediate hosts) When the eggs come into the gut, the larvae penetrate the intestinal wall to move throughout the body of the pig, they often nest in lean pork fibers to form tapeworms (rice disease / rice pig).
Humans: Eat raw "pork rice" (nem chua) or re-cooked, the larvae will then develop into adult flukes in the small intestine. Or eating the uncooked food contaminated with tapeworm eggs carrying embryonic cells from the outside environment will cause cysticercosis In humans: from within the intestine, the tapeworm larvae penetrate the vascular wall into the bloodstream and migrate to all over the body causing hard bumps in the muscles, most commonly in the subcutaneous tissue, brain and eye. In this case, the person is the intermediate host.


Parasitic Meningitis

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Symptoms: brain damage with seizures, vision loss or blindness ...
4. Symptoms of parasitic meningitis
The most common symptoms are fever and headache (seen in more than 90% of patients, often with pain.

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