Tapeworm Larvae And What To Know
Sparganum tapeworm larvae are common names for the larvae of Spirometra species, including: S. mansoni, S. ranarum, S. Mansonoides, S. erinacei, S. decipiens, S. Houghtoni and S. proliferum
The tapeworm larvae are shaped like a white ribbon, about 3 mm wide and up to 30 cm in length. Sparga is a solid-bodied larva with absorption (two longitudinal grooves) instead of vacuums, without bladder.
. The larvae consist of a series of segments and no segments, from 20-30 cm long, with a thick shell and long bundles of muscle fibers along the mesenchymal tissue.
Source of transmission
Dogs and cats are the main hosts of adult flukes. The first intermediate host was Cyplops sp. and freshwater crustaceans. The second intermediate hosts are birds and mammals, amphibians and reptiles
Path of disease transmission
People infected with Sparga through three main routes: drinking water contaminated with Cyplops sp. Infection with tapeworm larvae, caused by eating undercooked meat, frogs, clones, or snake or frog meat on open wounds or other damaged areas, or eyes.
. In addition, humans can become infected with Sparga by swimming in water, and by procercoid larvae entering the skin.
The tapeworm life cycle and the invasive process cause disease in humans
Adult flukes live in the small intestine of dogs and cats. In the intestine, the flukes release eggs and eggs in the faeces to the environment, meet with water, they hatch into hairy larvae, then they are swallowed by Cyplops sp to turn into plerocercoid about 3 weeks later. When Cyplops are eaten by tadpoles, into the gastrointestinal tract, plerocercoid larvae burrow through the stomach wall to muscles and turn into white tape-shaped sparganum about 3cm long in frogs and clones Other hosts such as snakes, mice, eels, chickens swallow Cyplops, this parasite is only in sparganum form. When dogs, cats, eat intermediate or waiting hosts, the sparganum will become adult flukes in their small intestines.
Incubation period is from 20 days to 14 months. However, metacercariae larvae exist in the human body for many years or even decades before the onset of symptoms.
Sparganum disease in the eyes: after applying frog meat for about 10 days, the patient feels discomfort in the eyes, sore eyes, difficult eye movement, and reduced vision. Depending on where the sparganum is located in the eye, the patient may experience bulging eyes, corneal ulcers, optic neuritis, eyelid edema, patients with drooping eyes, reduced vision, and difficulty with eye movement.
. . If untreated, severe inflammation of the optic nerve can cause blindness
Sparganum can live every year, the symptoms they cause are sometimes reduced but secondary infections can occur at any time.
Sparganum disease in the tissue: when swallowing sparganum, the sparganum intestine passes through the intestinal wall, moves gradually into the skin, they can cause pain and itching, once located they cause abscess. Common locations include abdominal pectoral muscle, thighs, and subcutaneous tissue. In addition, many people may experience sparganum in peritoneal, brain, bladder, scrotum tissue.
Based on clinical images: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT) is helpful in diagnosing sparganosis.
Definitive diagnosis: sparganum must be seen from the wound.
In the case of sparganosis in the brain, the diagnosis is made using ELISA tests of cerebrospinal fluid or serum, but the diagnosis is usually made after surgery.
People with a history of covering up frog meat on their eyes as well as eating raw meat, mice, and uncooked eels are important factors for diagnosis.
Killing parasitic parasites by combining medical and surgical treatment. Internal medicine used to kill flukes in dosage based on the severity and severity of the disease and on the weight of the patient. Surgery will remove the incision and take out the sparganum, but the operation needs to be quick because the larvae can move away.
Prevention of schistosomiasis
Recommendation to the people about the dangers of drinking water from ponds and lakes. Improve the upgrading of public health infrastructure so that all people can have access to clean water. Discourage the use of potentially infected animals for medical purposes. Give up the habit of eating uncooked frogs and snakes .
DS. Cao Chí Công.
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