The Danger Is Caused By The Toxoplasma Gondii Cat Parasite
Toxoplasma disease has an acute and chronic phase.
The acute phase passes quickly. After exposure to the pathogen, the body begins to produce antibodies to fight parasites (parasites). At this time, under the action of antibodies, the parasite slows down the rate of reproduction, enters cells and creates follicles, initiating the chronic phase. The follicle is surrounded by a membrane made by the parasite itself. Cysts can persist for a long time without symptoms and may recur when the host is immunocompromised.
Infected after birth, usually from about 5 to 25 years old. Most patients do not find themselves infected with the Toxoplasma cat parasite and the acute phase has not been detected
Most cases do not determine the time and source of infection. But the incubation period is generally known from 1 to 3 weeks.
- Common mild form
About 15 to 20% of patients have symptoms of fever, lymphadenopathy and fatigue.
Moderate fever, 38o - 38o5, disappears for a few days and then disappears.
Lymphadenopathy: lymphadenopathy is not enlarged, stiff, nowhere, mobile, appearing in the neck, armpits, mediastinum, abdomen, lasting for months.
Tiredness lasts for months.
Mild illness without complications, no treatment is needed
- Severe form is rare
In this case, the parasite proliferate, causing localized necrotic lesions, the parasite spreads in the bloodstream causing disseminated disease Lesions are found in the brain, eyes, and heart. Encephalitis is often severe, eventually coma and death.
The risk of congenital disease due to Toxoplasma is when the pregnant mother is infected with an acute parasite, the parasite is circulating in the blood and in the placenta. The risk of mother transmitting parasites to the fetus in the first 3 months of pregnancy is 25% and the last 3 months of pregnancy is 65%.
. Conversely, the worse the injury when the sooner the fetus is infected.
- Can encephalitis - meningitis - spinal cord.
Is the main body, but now rare. The disease manifests itself at birth and corresponds to the infected fetus at the beginning of pregnancy There are 4 main symptom groups:
Shape and volume of the cranial brain: a large head with an exaggerated medullary brain.
Neurological symptoms: epilepsy, muscular hypertonia, plant neurological disorders.
Intracranial calcification: very characteristic, individual round nodules or clustered in one or several brain lobes
Eye signs: small eyes, odd eyes, fluttering eyes.
The disease progresses badly, often leading to death in the first week or the first month of life.
If the mother is infected in the late stages of pregnancy, the child is born with an acute illness with symptoms: jaundice, liver, splenomegaly, hemorrhagic skin mucosa.
- The disease appears slowly
The fetus is infected in the womb later.
The baby seems normal, but after 2.3 months there are sequelae If slightly infected, the sequelae will not appear fully.
Hidden in the eyes
This case accounts for the majority, about 80% of congenital cases. The baby is born completely normal, but a few months later or a few years later, the child will have retinitis pigmentosa. Most eye damage is caused by the parasite reactivating after being infected while still in the womb.
In severe cases, you may experience small eyes, eye slips, crossed eyes, and fluttering.
Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients
- Patients with AIDS
Toxoplasma gondii is the most common cause of focal encephalitis as one of the most common opportunistic diseases in patients with AIDS. The majority of cases are due to reactivation of the parasite. Typical symptoms are fever, prolonged headache.
In the primary case, the common symptoms are discomfort, prolonged headache and lymphadenopathy.
- Patients preparing organ transplants
In patients preparing to transplant special organs such as the heart, liver, lungs, kidneys must be made serum for diagnosis of parasites before surgery.
Blood transfusions rarely cause Toxoplasma infection due to the short duration of this parasite in the blood. The risk of infection is greater if leukocyte infusion. Toxoplasma infection due to marrow transplantation is rare.
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