The Harmful Effects Of Dendritic Worms And How To Detect Them When Infected

Gnathostoma (Gnathostoma) is a parasitic infection caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum. The disease is often folded in Asia, especially in Thailand and Japan.
In Vietnam, the disease is becoming more and more common, the number of Gnathostoma spinigerum infections coming for medical examination and treatment at specialized hospitals is increasing.
In nature, the host of a thorny worm is a pig, a cat, a dog, and a wild animal, in an infectious person infected by ingestion of the third stage larva of the worm. Incubation period in the body of the injured is 3-7 days. Within 48 h after ingestion, larvae enter the stomach or small intestine wall which can lead to the development of some symptoms such as mild weakness, fever, urticaria, loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, epigastric abdominal pain, and eosinophilia. Their movement throughout the body begins 3 to 4 weeks to several years after infection. Dangerous disease due to ectopic larvae, in which the intrusion into the central nervous system is one of the main causes of skin death, leading to the number of deaths due to this disease about 8 - 25% or with pulling movement long relative to the nervous system about 30%


Adult spiny nematode
Manifestations of prickly worms
Chronic hives or spots on the skin
The lump is small and irregular in size and has mobility (in some cases the larvae move under the skin, the larvae move the organs)
There may be pain at the tumor, swelling of the muscles and heart
Subcutaneous abscesses caused by parasitic larvae.
May be fatal when larvae enter the brain.


The Harmful Effects Of Dendritic Worms And How To Detect Them When Infected

.
In the digestive tract:
Larvae often parasitize internal organs such as stomach and liver.
Sometimes the stray larva travels to the abdominal sinuses to form tumors.
Lungs: cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, coughing up green purulent sputum.
Digestive system: signs of appendicitis, cholecystitis, pseudomembranous lesions.
Urinary system: hematuria

Eyes: may reduce vision, leading to blindness, eye pain
Ears: reduced hearing or tinnitus
Causes a number of diseases in the central nervous system such as acute, chronic meningitis, parotidicular muscular swelling like mumps.
How is the disease detected?
Based on the physical examination by the doctor, the damage caused by the worms on the skin, the risks that the patient is exposed.
Based on the results of blood tests of patients: by ELISA technique Gnathostoma IgG will indirectly find antibodies against prickly worms.
The diagnosis of trichillomiasis is difficult due to the clinical symptoms of the disease are not specific and appear only severe cases.


The Harmful Effects Of Dendritic Worms And How To Detect Them When Infected

. Currently, methods of detecting anti-Gnathostoma spinigerum antibodies are commonly used in the diagnosis of dendritic worms such as indirect skin hypersensitivity test, radioimmunoassay analysis, ELISA test, westem blot, pink agglutination test passive bridge. In which ELISA test detects the dendritic antibody that allows detection of disease after 2-4 weeks after infection. The sensitivity of the ELISA test can reach up to 98% and does not cross-react with other parasites.
KTV Ngoc Hanh.

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