Paper method embedded 10 parameters
Urine tests to look for carbohydrate metabolism, kidney, liver disorders, acid base balance and urinary tract infections. Kidney function may be affected by long-term or over-prescribed medications. Regular urine checks help patients and doctors make sure the treatment does not affect the patient's kidneys, which is safe for treatment.
When urine is formed, it will go through 3 processes:
The filtration process takes place in the glomeruli.
The process of reabsorbing substances from the renal tubules and into the blood
The process of excretion of some substance from the bloodstream into the renal tubules.
A urine test is to identify and measure some of the by-products of normal and abnormal metabolism, cells, cell fragments, and bacteria in the urine. Urine is produced by the kidneys, and filters waste from the blood, helps to regulate the amount of water in the body, preserves proteins, electrolytes, and other compounds that the body can reuse
Some diseases can also be diagnosed at an early stage by detecting abnormalities in urine.
. Abnormal high levels of glucose, protein, and bilirubin, red blood cells, white blood cells, crystals, and bacteria can indicate diseases. They may be present because:
There is high concentration in the blood and spills into the urine.
The patient has made kidney dialysis less effective.
The infection has brought bacteria and white blood cells into the urine.
A complete urine test consists of three separate test stages:
Visual survey: assessment of color, clarity and amount of urine
Chemical properties test: chemical tests for certain substances can provide valuable information about health and disease
Microscopic examination: which identifies and counts cell types, embryos, or crystals, and other components (bacteria, mucus) that may be present in the urine.
Today, a routine urine analysis consists of visual surveys and chemical tests. If any abnormal findings are found, the urine sample may be further examined under a microscope.
Samples and tools:
Specimen: use urine between lines and perform as soon as possible.
Tools: use clean urine vial, blotting paper, dip stick, may have 10-dip dipstick.
Remove the dipstick from the bottle or jar and close the cap tightly.
Dip the strip into the urine until it is up to glucose and take-out immediately (remember to take excess urine), so slowly stick the absorbent paper to remove all the excess urine.
Read the results: compare the color of the reagent area immersed in urine with the color chart on the bottle and read it within the time allowed (if a photometer is available, do so immediately)
Reference table of 10 urine parameters
Parameters NEG + ++ +++ ++++
Leukocytes (Leu / ml) NEG 70 125 500
Nitrite NEG POS
Urobilinogen (mg / dl) NORM 2 4 8 12
Protein (mg / dl)
30 100 300 2000
pH 5 6 7 8 9
Blood (Ery / ml) NEG 5-10 50 300
Specific Gravity 1000 1,005 1,010 1,015 1,020 1,025 1,030
Ketones (mg / dl) NEG 15 40 80 160
Bilirubin (mg / dl) NEG 1 3 6
Glucose (mg / dl) NORM 250 500 1000 2000
To check for some diseases or urinary tract infections. Symptoms of a urine infection may include changes in color or change in the smell of urine, pain when urinating, difficulty urinating, rib pain, blood in urine (hematuria), or fever.
To monitor the progress of diseases such as diabetes, kidney stones, urinary tract infections (UTIs), high blood pressure, or some kidney or liver diseases.
Be an important part of a regular physical exam.
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