Group B Streptococcus And Pregnancy

What is group B Streptococcal?
Group B streptococcal bacteria is one of many types of bacteria that live in the body and usually does not cause serious illness. This bacterium is commonly found in the digestive tract, urinary tract, male and female genital tract. In women the bacteria can live in the uterus and rectum. Group B streptococcal disease is not a sexually transmitted disease. In addition, this bacterium is different from Group A streptococcus, the bacteria that causes "sore throat".
What is bacterial colonies?
Bacterial colonization is when the person carries the bacteria but does not show any external symptoms. The number of bacteria present in a person can change over time. A person with a large group of bacteria may have a small number of bacteria after months or years

The amount of bacteria can also decrease to undetectable levels.


Group B Streptococcus And Pregnancy


Why should pregnant women pay attention to group B streptococci?
Most women with Group B streptococcal disease do not have any external symptoms or health effects. A small number may have urinary tract inflammation or metritis. However, the biggest effect is that women who carry the bacteria in late pregnancy may pass the bacteria on to their babies.
Types of group B streptococcal infections in infants
There are two types of group B streptococcal infection in infants: early and late stages. Both types can have serious consequences.
What is early stage infection?
Early infection occurs in the first week of a newborn, usually within 24-48 hours after birth. Infants become infected when they move through the vagina of a mother with a pinch of bacteria
Only a small number of children become infected by coming into contact with the bacteria.


Group B Streptococcus And Pregnancy

However, some factors, such as premature birth, may increase the chance of being infected. Common diseases caused by early group B streptococcal infection are pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis.
What is late stage infection?
Late-stage infection occurs after 6 days of age. This type of infection occurs when a mother passes it to her baby during birth or is in contact with a carrier. Late-stage infections can lead to meningitis and other conditions, such as pneumonia.
Can this infection be prevented in newborns?
The use of Group B streptococcal test in the late stages of pregnancy and treatment during childbirth can help prevent early stage infection. However, it cannot help prevent late-stage infection. Know how to recognize signs and symptoms of late-stage infection:
Children who are slow or inactive
Babies fussy
Poorly breastfed babies
The child is vomiting
Children have high fever
If your child has one of these symptoms, contact your doctor immediately.


Group B Streptococcus And Pregnancy


When do pregnant women get the B group streptococcal test?
To prevent early infection, the group B streptococcal test is done at the end of pregnancy, between the 35th and 37th weeks. When conducting the test, take samples from the uterus and rectum with scanning swab. The process is fast and painless. The sample is then sent to a laboratory for culture in a special medium.
What to do when the test results are positive?
If the test is positive, showing that the mother carries group B streptococcal bacteria, then the mother will usually have to use antibiotics during childbirth to prevent the transmission of the bacteria to her baby. Antibiotics help kill some bacteria that can harm babies during childbirth. Antibiotics are only effective if used during childbirth. If used early antibiotics bacteria can multiply and appear during the birth.


Group B Streptococcus And Pregnancy

Penicillin is an antibiotic commonly used to prevent early-stage infection in infants.
What to do if the mother has a penicillin allergy?
If the mother has a penicillin allergy, she must inform her doctor before having a group B streptococcal test. Women with a mild allergy may use another antibiotic, Cefazolin. In the case of a severe allergic reaction, such as a rash, it is important to test what type of bacteria is present in the sample to determine the appropriate antibiotic.
What to do if the mother has ever had a child with group B streptococcal infection?
If a mother has had a baby with streptococcus group B infection, or if during pregnancy a urine of group B streptococcus is detected, the likelihood of passing the bacteria on to her next child during childbirth is very high. . The mother will have to receive treatment during birth to protect the upcoming child. In this case, the mother does not need to be tested between 35 and 37 weeks of pregnancy.


Group B Streptococcus And Pregnancy


What to do if the mother is assigned to have a caesarean?
If a mother is assigned to have a caesarean section, there is no need to use antibiotics for group B streptococcal bacteria during delivery if the labor has not come or if the amniotic sac has not broken. However, it is still advisable to have a group B streptococcal test because labor may appear before the time of surgery. If the test result is positive, it is necessary to monitor whether the child is infected with group B streptococcal infection.

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