Acute Liver Failure – Dangerous Disease, Do Not Despise!

Acute liver failure is a serious disease and has a high mortality rate, and serious liver damage.
What is acute liver failure?
Acute liver failure is understood to mean mass damage of liver cells by a variety of causes, including conditions such as jaundice, coagulopathy, hepatic encephalopathy (kissing). anesthesia in the liver), multiple organ failure… in humans who previously had normal liver function.
The mortality rate of acute liver failure is always high up to 50 - 90% if not treated properly.
Symptoms of acute liver failure
Usually acute liver failure occurs suddenly in a person with a healthy history or no previous severe medical history.
Typical onset symptoms are fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, jaundice, yellowing of mucosa, dark urine, subcutaneous and mucosal bleeding, high and low digestive bleeding, possible brain hemorrhage. .
According to Lucke and Mallory, the division of acute liver failure into 3 stages comes with the following symptoms:
Million: not seen jaundice


Intermediate stage: Appearance of jaundice.


Acute Liver Failure - Dangerous Disease, Do Not Despise!


End-stage manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy.
Classification according to classic clinical, based on the period from the time when jaundice manifests to the appearance of hepatic encephalopathy:
Maximum acute liver failure 7 days.
Acute hepatic failure 8 - 28 days.
Subacute hepatic failure 5 - 12 weeks.
Brain encephalopathy can be divided into four levels:
Grade I: Excitement or depression, slurred speech, confusion, sleep disturbance, slight tremor.
Grade II: Drowsiness, disorientation, overcast, clear tremor.
Grade III: Lethargy, but also responsive, increased reflexes, frequent tremors

Grade IV: Deep coma, no longer shaking.


Acute Liver Failure - Dangerous Disease, Do Not Despise!


Jaundice is a common symptom of liver diseases
Causes of acute liver failure
Acute liver failure may occur due to the following:
Using the wrong medicine and the wrong dosage
Paracetamol overdose: Acute liver failure may be caused by taking too much Paracetamol at the same time, or taking an overdose for a long time.
Prescription drugs, including antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics, and anticonvulsants, can cause acute liver failure.
Herbal supplements: Certain herbal medicines and supplements, such as kava, ephedra, japonica, and peppermint, are believed to cause acute liver failure.
Due to hepatitis and other viruses
Hepatitis A, B, C and viruses like Epstein-Barr, cytomegalo and herpes simplex can lead to acute liver failure.
Toxic
Poisonous mushrooms: Amanita phalloides poisonous mushrooms, when ingested will cause acute liver failure, it is easy to confuse this mushroom with an edible mushroom.
Industrial chemicals Carbon tetrachloride is present in refrigerants and solvents for waxes, varnishes and other materials.
Due to pathology in the liver
Autoimmune hepatitis: Autoimmune hepatitis is a condition in which the body's immune system turns to attack liver cells, causing inflammation and damage to the liver and possibly causing acute liver failure.
Hepatic vein disease: typically Budd-Chiari syndrome, causing hepatic vein obstruction and the consequence of acute liver failure.


Acute Liver Failure - Dangerous Disease, Do Not Despise!


Metabolic pathology: Wilson's disease and acute fatty liver in pregnancy, sometimes causing acute liver failure
Primary or metastatic cancer to the liver can cause liver failure.
Sepsis: severe decrease in blood flow to the liver, causing liver failure.
Complications of acute liver failure
Cerebral edema
Liquids cause increased intracranial pressure
Hemorrhage and hemorrhagic complications
When acute liver failure, the liver will impair function so it can not produce enough coagulation factors, leading to gastrointestinal bleeding.
Infection
Common infections in patients with acute liver failure are infections of the blood, respiratory system and urinary tract.
CKD
Secondary renal failure will occur immediately after hepatic failure (and is known as hepatic or renal syndrome) or secondary renal failure due to a direct effect on both the liver and kidneys (e.g. paracetamol overdose).
Metabolic disorder
Hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia and metabolic alkalosis often occur, independent of renal function.


Acute Liver Failure - Dangerous Disease, Do Not Despise!


Acute liver failure causes many serious complications
Diagnosis of acute liver failure
Implementing the quadrants
Manifestations of fatigue, jaundice, and constant nausea in patients can be used for definitive diagnosis.
Besides, it is possible to apply specific methods such as:
Blood tests
Complete bilirubin assay
Supersonic
Computerized tomography (CT) or MRI
Check for liver tissue
Diagnosis of the cause
Due to the virus
Medicine
Sepsis and multiple organ failure
Metabolism: Wilson's disease, Reyes syndrome.
Cardiovascular: Budd-Chiari syndrome.
Other causes: Acute fatty liver in pregnancy, lymphoma, traditional medicine ...
Differential diagnosis
Applied when distinguishing acute liver failure from diseases such as:
Poisoning sedatives poisoning
Hypoglycemia.
Coma increases osmotic pressure.


Acute Liver Failure - Dangerous Disease, Do Not Despise!


Stroke.
Other neurological pathologies.
Treatment of acute liver failure
Treatment with anti-poisoning drugs: Patients will be prescribed acetaminophen overdose to be treated with a drug called an anti-poisoning drug. This medicine may also help treat other causes of acute liver failure.
Treatment with liver transplantation: The surgeon removes the damaged liver tissue of the patient and replaces it with a healthy liver from the donor.
Methods of prevention of acute liver failure
Always take the medication with you.

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