B-group Streptococcal Test For Pregnant Women
Group B streptococcal bacteria are found in the vagina and rectum of pregnant women. Because this bacteria can be transmitted from mother to child, it can cause extremely dangerous complications for children such as meningitis, pneumonia, even death, etc. perform GBS tests to help check and prevent potential dangers.
What is Group B Streptococcus (GBS)?
Group B streptococcal bacteria (GBS) is a bacterium that lurks in the intestines and vagina. About 10-30% of pregnant women get vaginal or rectal GBS infection.
If GBS is harmless in healthy adults (up to 25% of healthy women have this type of bacteria), it can be passed on to the baby causing a fetal infection that leads to stillbirth or to Severe complication in newborns due to bacterial infection.
In addition, group B streptococci can leave serious complications for pregnant women such as placental infection, amniotic fluid infection, blood infection, endometrial infection .
Group B streptococcal bacteria (GBS) is a bacterium that lurks in the intestines and vagina
When to test for GBS
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends periodic vaginal strep B testing for all pregnant women. This screening is done between 35 and 37 weeks of pregnancy. Studies show that testing done within 5 weeks of birth is the most accurate predictor of GBS status at birth.
If a mother has ever had a history of giving birth to a baby with GBS, doctors can skip the test and start treatment immediately during labor.
On the other hand, if the test does not happen but there are still some risk factors related to group B bacteria such as preterm birth, fever during labor, the doctor will prescribe IV antibiotics to definitely cannot infect the baby.
Symptoms when infected with GBS
Besides testing, pregnant women may notice some of the following symptoms to identify the possibility of GBS early.
Premature labor (before 37 weeks gestation)
Amniotomy early before 37 weeks with no signs of labor or before 18-24 before labor
Fever above 37
History of GBS infection in previous pregnancy
Detecting GBS in urine during pregnancy
Previous birth history of children infected with Group B.
The effect of GBS on infants
Group B streptococcal bacteria can cause adverse health effects for infants. After a bacterial infection, the child may have an early or late onset, and early onset signs and symptoms (which occur within hours of birth) include:
Septicemia, pneumonia and meningitis are the most common complications
Heart and blood pressure are not stable
Gastrointestinal and renal problems GBS early onset occurs more often than late onset. Usually, doctors will use antibiotics for intravenous administration to treat mothers and infants with early onset GBS.
Signs and symptoms of late-onset GBS (occurring within a week or months after birth) include:
Meningitis is the most common symptom and may cause the risk of brain damage causing children with intellectual retardation, etc.
Late-onset GBS may have been transmitted during childbirth or later exposure, such as GBS-contaminated breastmilk or maternal mammary glands infected with GBS.
Group B streptococcal bacteria can cause adverse health effects for infants
How is the GBS test done?
Women will be tested by taking a vaginal swab and a rectal swab. The guards will be analyzed to give the final result.
In addition, GBS can also be detected in urine cultures obtained during prenatal testing.
What is the positive result for GBS?
Not every baby born to a mother who is positive for GBS will get sick. About 1 in 200 babies born to a mother with GBS and not treated with antibiotics will develop GBS signs and symptoms. However, there are symptoms that indicate a mother has a higher risk of having a baby with GBS, including: labor or rupture of membranes before 37 weeks, rupture of membranes 18 hours or more before birth, fever during labor, infection The urinary tract caused by GBS during your pregnancy and a previous baby with GBS, ..
According to CDC, if a woman has a positive result and is not at high risk, the chances of having a baby with GBS are:
1 in 200 without antibiotics
1 in 4000 if using antibiotics
Group B streptococcal test should be performed to minimize the risk of mother-to-child transmission
GBS infection prevention
If the test result is positive for GBS and there are high risks, doctors may recommend that women take IV antibiotics during childbirth to avoid the risk of infecting the baby. Taking antibiotics significantly reduces the chance that your baby will get early onset group B streptococcal infection.
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