Changes In Physiological And Pathological Functions Of The Testes

The testes are the factory that produces sperm and steroid hormones related to sexual function in men. From the embryonic development stage to the aging of the body, testicular function has physiological and pathological changes.
Understanding the role of the testes helps us prevent abnormalities and prevent possible pathologies.
Function of testicles
The testes are composed of two different structures: one is a system of test tubes that produce and transport the testes.

The second is the leydig cell mass that is responsible for the production of steroidal androgens, with the major being testosterone and a small amount of estradiol.
The seminal tubes consist of germ cells and sertoli cells, which make up 80-90% of the entire testicle volume.
The production of spermatozoa is accomplished by differentiation and maturation of spermatoblasts over a period of 74 days, of which 50 days are in the spermatogenesis.
After getting out of the testes, the sperm take 12 - 21 days to get through the epididymis (5 - 6m long crest) and then ejaculate


The production of spermatozoa from spermatogenesis tubes is influenced by FSH hormone from the pituitary gland and leydig cells.


Changes In Physiological And Pathological Functions Of The Testes

Every day a normal male can produce 200 million sperm.
The role of the LH and FSH in the pituitary gland is to regulate the testes' two functions, and testosterone and sperm production can also act as a response to self-regulation separately.
Changes in the physiological and pathological functions of the testes
Embryonic and adolescent stages:
During embryo development, male embryos undergo three sex differentiation stages: the phase of determining chromosomal gender XY, the stage of gonadal transformation and the stage of determining the phenotypic genders and forming sets. Male urogenital organs.
The peak production of testes is in the middle of the 8th and 10th week of embryos, determining the phenotype that is completed by the end of the 3rd month of pregnancy, testosterone production will decrease significantly by the 9th month of pregnancy.

At birth, testosteron levels in boys are only slightly higher than for girls. After birth, in the first 3 months, the concentration of testosteron increases then decreases at 1 year of age, and continues to increase gradually during puberty until 17 years, the concentration of testosteron is equal to the concentration of testosteron in adults


Puberty period:
Puberty in men is marked by increased production of gonadotropins, initially during sleep, which then increase throughout the day.


Changes In Physiological And Pathological Functions Of The Testes


As the pituitary gland is less affected by age, testosteron levels tend to increase so that the testes mature and begin to produce sperm. Increased production of gonatropin is due to increased GnRH secretion.
The anatomical and functional changes during this period depend on the concentration of plasma testosterones, the male reproductive system, penis, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, testicular crest begins to develop, hairy system, beard develope. The deep voice is developed by the larynx, the vocal cords thicken, the connective tissue and muscles develop, especially in the chest and shoulder.
The process of developing to a certain stage will stop, once puberty is completed. Usually puberty begins at age 11-12 years and ends after 4-5 years.
Mature stage:
Next to puberty is the maturity stage of male gender. This period fully promoted the manifestation of masculinity and favorable period for reproduction.


Changes In Physiological And Pathological Functions Of The Testes


However, during this period the pathology can occur disrupting the secretion of hormones and causing diseases for the body manifested from the hypothalamus to the testicular organs.
Pathology of the pituitary gland impedes gonadotropin secretion, thereby reducing androgen secretion and sperm production.
Cushing's syndrome is an endocrine disorder caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone production that causes chronic, uncontrolled glucocorticoid hormone growth. Impact on pituitary axis, causing LH decrease.
Cushing syndrome should be well treated, depending on the cause of the syndrome such as pituitary adenoma, surgery of the pituitary gland, or adrenal gland surgery or surgical treatment according to indications.
In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, gonadotropins are stimulated to excrete causing premature puberty, whereas gonadotropins can be inhibited causing infertility.
This is a disease caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone synthesis disorder, because enzyme deficiency leads to cortisol deficiency, which leads to an increase in ACTH secretion from the pituitary gland, stimulation of adrenal cortex proliferation and over the production of intermediates, hydrocortisone treatment is indicated for life-long replacement of endogenous cortisol.
Increased prolactin reduces LH and FSH secretion, which causes dysfunction of leydig cells and spermatogenesis, which impedes the production of sperm.


Changes In Physiological And Pathological Functions Of The Testes


Testicular diseases include underdeveloped testicles that are found in congenital malformations or pathologies that are caused by inflammation, trauma, or diseases from other organs that cause testicles such as leprosy causes testicular atrophy,.

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