Congenital Heart Disease In Children: Causes, Treatment And Complications

Congenital heart disease or congenital heart defect is a heart defect at birth accompanied with life-threatening symptoms.
Classification of congenital heart disease
Although there are many different types of congenital heart defects, it can be divided into three main types:
In a heart valve defect, the valves inside the heart direct blood flow may close or leak. This hampers the ability to pump blood from the heart.
In the defect of the heart wall, the natural walls that exist between the left and right, the upper and lower chambers of the heart may not develop correctly, causing blood to flow back into the heart or build up. A defect putting pressure on the heart makes the heart work harder, which can lead to high blood pressure.
In vascular defects, arteries and veins that carry blood to the heart and back to the body may not work properly. This can reduce or block blood flow, leading to various health complications.
Cyanotic and Acyanotic congenital heart disease: Many doctors classify congenital heart disease as cyanotic congenital heart disease or acyanotic congenital heart disease

In both types, the heart is not pumped as effectively as it should.


Congenital Heart Disease In Children: Causes, Treatment And Complications

The main difference is that cyanotic congenital heart disease causes low blood oxygen levels, and acyanotic congenital heart disease does not occur. Babies who are deprived of oxygen may experience breathlessness and bluish skin.
What are the symptoms of congenital heart disease?
A congenital heart defect is most often detected during fetal ultrasound or other specific tests such as echocardiography, chest x-ray or MRI scan.
In some cases, symptoms of congenital heart defects may not appear until immediately after birth. Infants with heart defects may experience:
Bluish lips, skin, fingers and toes
Shortness of breath or rapid breathing
Difficulties when feeding
Low birth weight
Chest pain
Slow growth
In other cases, symptoms of congenital heart defects may not appear until many years after birth. When developing symptoms may include:
Abnormal heartbeat
Dizziness
Shortness of breath
Easy to faint
Swelling
Tired
Causes of congenital heart disease
Congenital heart disease is caused by a developmental problem in the heart's structure that affects the function and function of the heart. Although it is difficult to detect a specific cause, it can be caused by a number of reasons:
Genetics, a history of a family member who has the disease, or if a parent carries the disease gene without having a congenital heart
Taking certain medications not prescribed by your doctor during pregnancy puts your baby at higher risk for heart defects

Using alcohol or illegal drugs during pregnancy may increase your risk of heart defects
Mothers infected with the virus during the first trimester of pregnancy are more likely to give birth to a child with a heart defect
Increased blood sugar levels, such as those with diabetes, can affect the development of children.


Congenital Heart Disease In Children: Causes, Treatment And Complications


How is congenital heart disease treated?
The treatment of congenital heart defects depends on the type and severity of the disability. Some babies with mild heart defects heal by themselves over time. Others who may have serious disabilities need long-term treatment with the following methods:
Medicine
There are many medications that can help the heart function more efficiently. Some may also be used to prevent blood clots from forming or to control irregular heart rhythms.
Heart transplant device
Some complications related to congenital heart defects can be prevented by using a number of devices, including pacemakers and implanted defibrillators (ICDs). The pacemaker can help regulate abnormal heart rhythms and the ICD can adjust to life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms.
Cardiac catheterization procedure
Catheterization allows doctors to treat some congenital heart defects without open chest and heart surgery. During these procedures, the doctor inserts a thin tube into a vein in the leg and points it up to the heart.


Congenital Heart Disease In Children: Causes, Treatment And Complications

After the catheter is in place, your doctor will use small tools to pass through the catheter to treat the defect.
Open surgery
If cardiac catheterization cannot intervene to treat congenital heart defects, doctors can perform open-heart surgery to close holes in the heart, repair heart valves, or widen blood vessels.
Heart transplant
In rare cases when congenital heart defects are too complicated to overcome, a heart transplant may be needed. In this procedure, the child's heart is replaced with a healthy heart from a donor.
Depending on the disability, diagnosis and treatment can begin immediately after birth, in infancy or in adulthood. Some defects do not cause any symptoms until the child becomes an adult, so diagnosis and treatment may be delayed. In these cases, the symptoms of newly discovered congenital heart defects may include:
Short of breath
Chest pain
Reduce the ability to exercise
Easy to get tired
The treatment for congenital heart disease in adults may also vary depending on the severity.

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