Diabetes In Pregnant Women

Gestational diabetes is first diagnosed in pregnancy, causing high blood sugar that can affect the pregnancy and the health of the baby.
What is diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes (or diabetes) is a condition where the body cannot make enough insulin or cannot use normal insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the sugar (glucose) in the blood enter the body's cells for use as energy. When glucose cannot enter cells, it builds up in the blood, which leads to high blood sugar (hyperglycemia).
High blood sugar can cause problems throughout the body. It can damage blood vessels and nerves, causing damage to the eyes, kidneys and heart. During early pregnancy, high blood sugar levels can lead to birth defects in babies.
There are 3 types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes: is an autoimmune disorder

The body's immune system damages the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.


Diabetes In Pregnant Women


- Type 2 diabetes: When the body cannot make enough insulin or does not use insulin properly. It is not an autoimmune disease.
Gestational diabetes: This is a condition in which blood sugar levels rise and other diabetes symptoms appear in pregnancy in a woman who has not been previously diagnosed with diabetes.
Symptoms of gestational diabetes
For most women, gestational diabetes does not cause noticeable signs or symptoms, constant thirst, and frequent urination rather than possible symptoms.
If possible, seek medical care sooner when deciding to become pregnant so your doctor can check the risk of gestational diabetes along with the overall health of the mother. During pregnancy, your doctor will check your risk of gestational diabetes as part of prenatal care. In case of pregnant women with gestational diabetes, they will have to be checked more frequently

Causes of gestational diabetes
Normally, different hormones work to control blood sugar but during pregnancy, hormone levels change, making it difficult for the body to process blood sugar more efficiently.


Diabetes In Pregnant Women


In addition, during pregnancy, an organ called the placenta provides the baby with nutrients and oxygen, the placenta also produces hormones. At the end of pregnancy, the hormones estrogen, cortisol and placenta can stop insulin. When insulin is blocked, it is called insulin resistance. At this time, glucose cannot enter body cells and exists in the blood and cause blood sugar to rise.
There are also risk factors that make some women at higher risk of gestational diabetes:
- Overweight and obesity
- Lack of physical activity
- Pre-gestational diabetes or prediabetes before pregnancy
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
- History of diabetes of family members
Some women who have prediabetes before pregnancy are called prenatal diabetes. Other women may have a type of diabetes that only occurs during pregnancy called gestational diabetes.
Improper diet that causes obesity weight gain is one of the causes of diabetes
Complications of gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes without proper care and management can lead to high blood sugar levels that can cause problems for the mother and fetus.
Complications can affect the fetus
Excess weight at birth: A higher than normal blood sugar level in a pregnant woman can cause the baby to grow too large, increasing the likelihood of perineal inflammation during labor.


Diabetes In Pregnant Women


- Preterm birth: High blood sugar may increase the risk of early labor in pregnant women
- Severe shortness of breath: Babies born early in mothers with gestational diabetes may experience respiratory distress syndrome - a condition that causes breathing difficulties
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia): Sometimes babies of mothers with gestational diabetes have low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) soon after birth. Severe episodes of hypoglycemia can cause seizures in a child.
- Being prone to obesity and type 2 diabetes in later life: Babies of mothers with gestational diabetes are at higher risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes than normal.
- stillbirth: Untreated gestational diabetes can lead to the death of a baby before or right after birth.
Gestational diabetes affects both mother and baby
Complications can affect pregnant women
High blood pressure and pre-eclampsia: Gestational diabetes increases the risk of high blood pressure, as well as preeclampsia - a serious pregnancy complication caused by high blood pressure and other symptoms that can threaten threaten the lives of both mother and baby
- cesarean section: Pregnant women with gestational diabetes will increase the risk of cesarean section because the fetus is too big.
- Risk of future diabetes: If you have gestational diabetes, you are more likely to have it again in the next pregnancy and also at risk of type 2 diabetes. shift.

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