Early Hiv Testing Is Required During Pregnancy

Babies can get HIV from their mothers at different stages: pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding. Preventive treatment is therefore necessary as this is an important and first step in reducing the risk of mother to child transmission of HIV.
How is HIV transmitted from mother to child?
Pregnancy period
HIV transmission during pregnancy occurs very early, as soon as the mother is eight weeks pregnant and can last throughout pregnancy. However, the rate of HIV transmission through the placenta is high at the gestational age of over 18 weeks. HIV is transmitted from the blood of an HIV-infected mother through the placenta to the fetus.
About 20-30% of children are infected with mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This rate may increase if the age of the mother increases or when the mother becomes pregnant with HIV because the level of HIV in the blood is very high. If a mother is infected with HIV in the late stage (AIDS stage), she will get pregnant


At birth
Mother to child transmission of HIV can occur during labor.


Early Hiv Testing Is Required During Pregnancy

Causes when a child "crosses" the mother's genital tract to go out, has direct contact with vaginal fluids (swallowing amniotic fluid, virus in her blood and vaginal fluids containing HIV) or due to blood exchange mother - fetus during labor. About 50-60% of children are HIV-infected during this period.
The risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV during pregnancy will increase in difficult cases, prolonged labor, scratched fetuses, trauma ... Early amniotic rupture is also a cause of increased risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. to me
The longer the time of rupture of membranes until delivery, the higher the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.


Early Hiv Testing Is Required During Pregnancy


Babies can get HIV from their mothers at different stages: pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding
When breastfeeding
Because HIV is present in breast milk, it can penetrate through the child's oral mucosa, tongue, gums and infect the baby, especially if the child has infections in the oral cavity (thrush, sore throat).
The risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding will increase if the HIV-infected mother has moved to AIDS because of high maternal HIV blood levels or after giving birth to a child who is newly infected with HIV. The longer the breastfeeding period, the greater the risk of HIV transmission to the child.
Tests to evaluate pregnant women infected with HIV
Blood tests, Hb, ALT.
Chest radiography, sputum AFB and other clinical tests to support the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis and other conditions.
Test for creatinine, lipid, blood glucose if pregnant women use TDF and protease inhibitors.
CD4 test, tests to select ARV regimens such as HbsAg, anti-HCV.
Pregnant women need to get tested early for HIV to promptly intervene to avoid infecting children
Early treatment, high efficiency
According to a study of the World Health Organization (WHO), out of every 100 pregnant women infected with HIV (without intervention), about 9 children will be infected with HIV from mother to child during pregnancy, 17 children will be infected.


Early Hiv Testing Is Required During Pregnancy

HIV during labor and 10 HIV-infected children during breastfeeding. Thus, for every 100 babies born to HIV-infected mothers, 36 babies will be infected from mother to child ...
According to statistics of the Ministry of Health, there are an estimated 6,000 pregnant women infected with HIV each year. Without the intervention measures to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, the rate of HIV transmission to children is 35%, so every year there will be more than 2,000 children born infected with HIV.
However, if HIV-infected pregnant women apply early preventive interventions, the rate of mother to child transmission is only about 5%, meaning that it can save more than 1,600 children who are not infected. HIV from mother.


Early Hiv Testing Is Required During Pregnancy


The prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is a key measure to significantly reduce the rate of children infected by mother-to-child HIV and preventive treatment as soon as possible. Pregnant women need prenatal check-ups and HIV tests as early as the first 3 months of pregnancy.
If testing for HIV at the end of pregnancy or just before birth, it is very difficult to prevent prophylaxis because preventive treatment needs to be done at 28 weeks of pregnancy to be effective. According to the study, if the full preventive medicine is taken from the 28th week of pregnancy, combined with not breastfeeding, the rate of infection is reduced to about 5%.
In the course of prophylactic treatment, the most important thing is to adhere to the regimen, the HIV-infected mother and her child must follow the instructions of the doctor. Depending on the stage of HIV positive determination in pregnancy, the doctor will have specific preventive indications.
According to the treatment regimen of the Ministry of Health, when pregnant women infected with HIV will receive ARV prophylaxis (Antiretrovirus), babies are also given prophylactic ARV and must replace breast milk completely.
Early preventive treatment will help minimize the risk of mother to baby transmission
Prophylaxis for labor, postpartum and breastfeeding
During labor, the possibility of transmitting HIV to the fetus is quite high.


Early Hiv Testing Is Required During Pregnancy

Therefore, as soon as signs of labor or maybe earlier, it is necessary to bring pregnant women to health facilities for safe birth control measures, minimizing the possibility of infection.
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