Hepatitis B In Newborns

Among the viral hepatitis types, hepatitis B is the most dangerous. Children and adults can both get the hepatitis B virus, especially if babies are infected, very bad consequences can occur.
Reason
In Vietnam, according to statistics of some authors, about 10-13% of pregnant women are infected with the hepatitis B virus. This is a very large percentage. The transmission of hepatitis B virus from mother to child during pregnancy is very dangerous.
The risk varies depending on the length of pregnancy. If a mother has hepatitis B in the early pregnancy (first trimester), the percentage of mothers passing the germs to their babies is about 1% and in the second trimester of pregnancy up to 10%, especially if entering the last 3 months will be 60 - 70%.
To assess the progression of the hepatitis B virus in an infected person's body, the usual and applicable method in provincial hospital laboratories is to identify HBsAg and HBeAg


It is statistically shown that when a blood test of a pregnant mother in the last 3 months finds both HBsAg and HbeAg positive, the rate of mother-to-child transmission is up to 90 - 100 %.


Hepatitis B In Newborns

However, if the test only finds HBsAg positive, while HBeAg is negative, the rate of mothers passing the disease to their children is much lower (about 20%).
Danger
Infants infected with the hepatitis B virus by transmission from the mother are a serious problem in their treatment. The number of children infected with the hepatitis B virus from the mother can become acute hepatitis, accounting for about 5-7%.
The number of infants with acute hepatitis often has no typical clinical symptoms, most of which are manifestations of the disease.
Acute hepatitis B in infants may have some symptoms such as jaundice, yellow urine, poor feeding. Blood tests will show that liver enzymes and blood bilirubin indicators are also very high. These manifestations are easily overlooked because children are often in a dimly lit room and especially observed under light that is difficult to evaluate or detect, sometimes it can be mistaken for physiological jaundice
Seek medical attention immediately.


Hepatitis B In Newborns


It has also been found that up to 50% of babies born to mothers with hepatitis B can become chronic hepatitis and be at risk of developing adult cirrhosis, even liver cancer.
Treatment and prevention
When a newborn is suspected of being infected with hepatitis B, he / she must be examined at a medical establishment eligible for testing. If the child is diagnosed with hepatitis B, the physician's instructions should be followed and if the jaundice is relieved or gone, the child should be examined every month for about 6 months.
Babies who are born without hepatitis B should get the 1st dose within 24 hours of birth. The child must have a 2nd shot after 1 month from the 1st and 3rd shots when the child is 2 months old.
For women who have not been infected with the hepatitis B blood test, they should be vaccinated right after the test. For women with the hepatitis B virus disease who want to become pregnant, they need to consult a specialist.
For women who have not been vaccinated, but during pregnancy, they need hepatitis B advice from a specialist to know how to handle it, especially hepatitis B in the months.


Hepatitis B In Newborns

3rd month of pregnancy onwards.
For couples who have not been infected with the hepatitis B virus, vaccinations are needed to be safe when the wife is pregnant. If one of the two people are infected with the hepatitis B virus, the other person also will immediately get the vaccine.
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Bui Khac Hau.

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