Hepatitis B Virus: Hidden Face-kill Enemy
The hepatitis B virus (Hepatitis B virus) causes dangerous hepatitis B infection, it is estimated that more than 250 million people carry the hepatitis B virus in the world and more than 600,000 people die each year from hepatitis B-related liver disease. .
Transmission route of hepatitis B virus
The route of transmission and the age at which a virus is infected play a role in determining the prognosis of the disease:
Infections in adults: usually through the bloodstream (sharing injecting equipment, potentially life-threatening household items such as razors, toothbrushes or nail clippers), sexually transmitted, dense especially when having homosexual or multi-sex sex or having sex with people with sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis and gonorrhea.
People who are infected this way, 95% suffer from acute hepatitis and go away on their own, do not need treatment or only need supportive treatment. The remaining 5% become carriers of chronic hepatitis virus and can cause chronic hepatitis and progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The early detection of this 5% group, with periodic monitoring for timely treatment of chronic hepatitis, is considered early treatment for liver cancer.
Mother to child transmission during childbirth: If a child is born to mothers with hepatitis B virus, 95% will become a carrier of chronic hepatitis virus, only 5% will be able to clear the virus themselves. out of body
How long does it take for a child with chronic hepatitis B virus to become chronic and need treatment? There is no correct answer.
Therefore, there is a need for a follow-up strategy for these children to identify the early stage of treatment.
Path of transmission of hepatitis B virus
Symptoms of hepatitis B virus
Depending on the acute or chronic form, there will be different symptoms, namely:
Acute hepatitis B infection
Fatigue, anorexia, mild fever, yellow urine
Pain in the liver
Yellow eyes and yellow skin
The disease usually subsides within a few weeks and then resolves on its own. Tests return to normal, the virus gradually clears the body within 6 months. About 5% of symptoms improve or resolve but after 6 months the virus persists in the body and becomes chronic hepatitis B virus.
Chronic hepatitis B
Most people with chronic hepatitis B have no symptoms or are transient, like the flu, which makes it easy to ignore. The disease may have progressive or silent episodes leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer if not treated promptly. Therefore, hepatitis B virus is also considered as a hidden enemy
Symptoms of cirrhosis include:
Edema in the abdomen and legs, fluid accumulates in the lungs.
Easy bruising or bleeding
Shortness of breath
Confusion can occur suddenly
Epigastric pain may be a symptom of liver disease
Tests are needed to diagnose hepatitis B virus infection
HbsAg is the superficial antigen of the virus, found in all people infected with the hepatitis B virus
HBeAg (+) and HBV DNA are elevated> 20,000UI infected with active hepatitis B virus
HBeAg (-) and HBV DNA <2000UI: inactivated hepatitis B virus infection HBeAg (-) and HBV DNA> = 2000 UI: active hepatitis B virus infection with natural seroconversion
HbcAb IgM (+): acute hepatitis B virus infection
HbcAb IGG (+): chronic hepatitis B virus infection
Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus
- It should be noted that, chronic hepatitis B virus infection is not synonymous with chronic hepatitis B virus. Not all people who carry hepatitis B virus need treatment right away, even when HBV DNA levels are very high.
- Patients should be monitored periodically every 6 months to determine the time to treat. Tests to watch include:
HbeAg, HbeAb, HBV DNA
Liver ultrasound and liver fibroscan to assess the density and fibrosis of the liver
Liver biopsy in necessary cases
Particularly for children: only routine monitoring of liver enzymes and HBV DNA only when there is an increase in liver enzymes
Tests to assess co-infection with other viruses to determine treatment strategies: HIV, HCV, HAV
- Antiviral drugs: to control the multiplication of viruses, thereby reducing the risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer
The duration of treatment is unknown, so during treatment the patient should also be monitored periodically every 3-6 months to see the anti-virus response of the drug.
Promptly treat hepatitis B virus to avoid serious damage to the liver
Preventing the transmission of hepatitis B virus
- Vaccination is the best way to prevent infection. After vaccination the body produces antibodies against the virus and therefore, if exposed to the source, will not be infected
- For those who have been infected with the virus: need to protect the prevention of infection for close contacts, do not share items at risk of bleeding, sex should wear a condom
- For mothers with hepatitis B virus infection, during pregnancy it is necessary to determine the concentration of the virus. If the virus concentration is high, it is necessary to treat the virus from the 28th week until the baby is born. Babies born to these mothers need an injection of 1 serum dose within the first hour and 1 vaccine dose within 12 hours.
All measures are intended to minimize access. . Dịch vụ: Thiết kế website, quảng cáo google, đăng ký website bộ công thương uy tín
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