How Dangerous Is Hemolytic Anemia During Pregnancy?
Hemolytic anemia is an inherited blood disorder. Therefore, if a woman is planning to become pregnant, she should consult with her doctor about the risk of transmission to the child.
Hemolytic anemia is what disease?
Hemolytic anemia is an inherited blood disorder that occurs when a gene is mutated. The red blood cells of a patient are often fragile, and the life cycle is shorter than normal.
Red blood cell disruption on the one hand causes anemia, and on the other hand negatively affects other organs of the body due to insufficient blood supply to function.
Hemolytic anemia is a genetic disease that is a recessive gene. Patients with recessive genes often do not have a clear expression, but they will express the dominant gene in the next generation. Therefore, if a woman has a disease gene in her, the risk of inheriting it to her baby is very high
Causes of hemolytic anemia
Hemolytic anemia caused by many causes, is divided into groups including:
Due to immunity
The antibodies inside the body are likely to trigger the reaction that causes rupture of red blood cells:
- Hemolytic anemia caused by autoimmune antibodies
- Reaction of blood transfusion process
- Due to infection
- Due to some other autoimmune diseases such as colitis, Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis .
- Due to malignancies: acute leukemia, lymphoma ...
Hemolytic anemia is a dangerous genetic disease
Not due to immunity
Ruptured erythrocytes are not related to antibodies but are caused by several reasons:
- Side effects of the drug: reduces the strength of the film causing fragile
- Poisoning due to bee stings, snake venom
- Deposition of excess material: thalassemia
- Abnormalities in red blood cell structure: Hemoglobin disease
- Lack of enzyme has the function of stabilizing red blood cells like G6DP enzyme
- After heart surgery
Is hemolytic anemia dangerous?
Hemolytic anemia is a dangerous genetic disease. It not only affects the health of the mother but also inherits to the child
Affect the health of the pregnant mother
When pregnant, pregnant women easily fall into a state of stress, fatigue.
This makes the symptoms of hemolytic anemia more clearly and exacerbated. In particular, the heart and liver are the two most vulnerable parts. In addition, the hormonal system secretes in the mother's body is also affected.
When pregnant, the mother needs to produce more blood than usual to provide blood to the body, while providing blood to the fetus. Therefore, pregnant women with hemolytic anemia are very prone to severe anemia. In many cases, the pregnancy requires a blood transfusion during pregnancy.
Hemolytic anemia also makes pregnant women an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Therefore, patients need to have a health check before pregnancy to prevent possible negative effects.
Affect the baby's development
Depending on the parents' mutated gene type, the risk of developing the disease as well as the symptoms of the disease in children varies from severe to mild. If both parents are ill, the child will have this condition.
In severe cases, the fetus may die in the womb due to anemia. In mild cases, the disease may manifest when the baby is 6-24 months old with symptoms such as jaundice, growth retardation, fatigue, diarrhea, fever ... If not treated early, the child will develop retardation, even death.
Hemolytic anemia can be transmitted to children so pregnant women should be aware
If the couple carries the recessive gene, the risk of having a baby is 25% higher than that of the dominant gene and the disease being severe.
At that time, the baby will seem to have a blood transfusion for a lifetime. If only one parent is infected, the baby's risk of infection is only 50% but in a mild form, little manifestation.
Be careful during pregnancy
Currently, many women who are screened during pregnancy are diagnosed with hemolytic anemia, but most of them are mild (recessive gene). In this case, the doctor will ask the husband to have a blood test to see if he is infected.
If the husband also has hemolytic anemia, the ability to give birth will carry the dominant gene, that is, he will develop hemolytic anemia, later his life will be associated with blood transfusion.
If the husband is not sick, the chance that a child will be born 50% is not infected and 50% is a mild infection, which means that he still has a normal life.
Therefore, pregnant women should not be too worried when they see the conclusion that they have hemolytic anemia. Mothers still have the ability to have healthy and normal children because the rate of both husband and wife suffering from this disease is very low, mainly in ethnic minority areas due to the custom of marrying with blood relatives.
Even so, mothers should also be cautious during pregnancy to limit and overcome hemolysis by avoiding the risk of malaria, viral fever, diabetes, ... by sleeping in bed, eat in moderation and quality, add foods from beans to improve resistance, do not drink alcohol, smoke, avoid contact with places with hazardous environments.
Folic acid is also an agent that helps the body make new red blood cells. Therefore, mothers should supplement foods rich in folic acid before and during pregnancy to help the fetus be healthy.
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