Limiting The Side Effects Of Diabetes Medicine – What?
So far, diabetes (diabetes) is still a disease that can not be completely cured. Therefore, people are still trying to find new drugs to treat diabetes more effectively.
Currently on the market there are many different types of diabetes medicine and even one drug can have many different brand names. Therefore, to understand the effects as well as how to use and limit the side effects of these drugs is extremely important.
Based on the duration of action (the time of onset of action, the period of maximum effect and the time to stop working), there are three types of insulin commonly used today: fast insulin, semi-slow and mixed insulin. (Or insulin mixtard includes 2 types of fast and slow sales are mixed in certain proportions). It is possible to distinguish between fast-acting vials of insulin and other types of insulin that are cloudy.
In addition to patients with type 1 diabetes, insulin injection is also indicated for patients with type 2 diabetes who have failed (not responding) to oral hypoglycemic agents, when blood glucose levels are too high, comatose Diabetes or in special cases such as severe infection, stroke or liver failure, kidney failure
Oral medications for type 2 diabetes:
There are many groups of oral medications to treat type 2 diabetes, each with a different mechanism of action. The main drugs and drug groups are:
- Metformin is considered a first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes patients who are obese or overweight because of the main effect on insulin resistance.
Metformin has the outstanding advantage of neither gaining weight nor lowering blood sugar too low. Side effects of the drug may include bloating, nausea, diarrhea, etc.
Metformin should be taken immediately after a meal. Do not use metformin in renal, hepatic or respiratory failure
Sulfonylurea drugs ...
- The sulfonylurea group is the most commonly used type 2 diabetes treatment, its main effect is to stimulate the pancreas to increase insulin secretion.
Side effects of the drug may cause weight gain but not much (1-2kg) and low blood sugar (common when using chlopropamid and glibenclamide) especially in elderly patients, patients with liver or kidney disease. This group of drugs usually have to be used 2-3 times per day, taken before meals.
Guide people with diabetes health care.
The thiazolidinediones (TZD)
TZD drugs work to increase the effects of insulin in body tissues but not increase insulin secretion.
In addition it also works to reduce dyslipidemia.
TZD treatment usually causes weight gain (about 2-4 kg / 24 months), mainly due to an increase in subcutaneous fat storage, and partly due to water retention. Therefore, caution should be exercised when treating TZD in patients with heart failure or with heart disease, hepatitis or elevated liver enzymes.
Postprandial hyperglycemia is common in type 2 diabetic patients. Alpha-glucosidase enzyme plays an important role in food digestion and absorption.
Acarbose inhibits alpha-glucosidase enzyme so it will slow down the absorption of carbohydrates in the digestive tract, thereby reducing the level of hyperglycemia after a meal. Acarbose can be taken alone on a diet or in combination with sulfonylurea, metformin or insulin.
The side effect of acarbose is bloating and bloating, sometimes abdominal pain and diarrhea.
To overcome this should take the drug in the middle of a meal, start with a low dose and increase the dose slowly.
Other types of oral medication for type 2 diabetes
- Novonorm has a similar effect to sulfonylurea but stimulates insulin secretion earlier. Therefore it is often taken at the beginning of a meal and lowers blood sugar after a meal.
- Mediator also works on both insulin resistance and dyslipidemia but less so than metformin. Can mediator treatment alone or in combination with sulfonylurea ...
Combination treatment of drugs
According to the new recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, when taking a drug that does not control blood sugar, it is advisable to treat the combination of 2 or 3 drugs orally together or with insulin soon.
Combination therapy is beneficial because at the same time it affects on many stages, many different disorders of the process of developing type 2 diabetes.
The drugs that can work together are:
- Sulfonylurea + metformin or acarbose or TZD.
- Metformin + acarbose or TZD.
- Insulin + sulfonyurea or metformin or acarbose.
Evaluate the effects of diabetes medicine
If you want to know if the medicine you are using works well, you need to check your blood sugar. When starting treatment or changing your treatment regimen, you need to test your blood sugar 3-4 times a day, including measuring your blood sugar before and after a 2-hour meal. When the blood sugar level is stable, you still need to measure 2-3 times per week.
Record the results to inform your doctor when you go to the doctor and ask him or her if your blood sugar is under good control.
According to the American Diabetes Association, blood sugar of diabetic patients is considered safe if it falls within the following range:
Before meals: 5.0 - 7.2mmol / L.
After eating 1-2 hours: less than 10mmol / L.
Before going to bed: 6.0 - 8.3mmol / L.
Summary: In the struggle to prevent and treat diabetes, there will certainly be more and more anxiety.
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