3 Times Of Fetal Ultrasound To Detect Fetal Defects
According to statistics, the rate of fetal malformation in Vietnam is currently 3%, the most common is malformation in the nervous system, head - face - neck, chest - abdomen. Ultrasound is an effective and simple way to detect these defects.
What is an unborn baby?
An unborn baby is a genetic or physical defect in the fetus that can affect pregnancy, complicated delivery, and have a serious negative effect on the baby at birth.
Minor birth defects can be easily overcome, but serious problems can lead to a stillbirth or death soon after birth.
What are the most common birth defects?
The most common birth defects in an unborn baby are:
- Congenital heart defects
- cleft lip / palate, cleft palate
- Down syndrome
- Spina bifida
- Malformed limbs, genital deformities
- Sexual disorders, unable to reproduce
- Delayed intellectual development, growth retardation
Down syndrome in young children
Causes of birth defects in the fetus
Birth defects can result from:
- Genetic problem
- Choose your lifestyle and behavior
- Contact with certain drugs and chemicals
- Infection during pregnancy
- The combination of these factors
However, the exact cause of some birth defects will usually be:
A mother or father can pass on genetic abnormalities to their children. Genetic abnormalities occur when a gene becomes defective due to a mutation, or change. In some cases, a gene or part of a gene may be missing. These defects occur during conception and can usually be prevented
- The mother's lifestyle
The cause of some birth defects can be difficult or impossible to identify. However, certain behaviors significantly increase the risk of birth defects, including smoking, illegal drug use and drinking alcohol during pregnancy. There is also the risk of exposure to toxic chemicals or viruses.
Birth defects in the fetus are mainly due to the mother's genetics and lifestyle
Factors that increase the risk of birth defects
All pregnant women are at risk of having a baby with a birth defect. The risk increases under any of the following conditions:
- Family history of birth defects or other genetic disorders
- Use of drugs, alcohol or smoking during pregnancy
- Age of mother from 35 years old
- Inadequate prenatal care, untreated viral or bacterial infections, including sexually transmitted infections
- Use some high-risk medicines, such as isotretinoin and lithium
- A mother with diabetes is also at higher risk of having a baby with a birth defect.
Common types of birth defects
Birth defects are often classified according to the structure, function, and development of young children.
A structural defect is when a specific body part is missing or malformed
- Heart defect
- cleft lip or palate, when there is a gap or split in the lip or palate
- Spina bifida, when the spinal cord does not develop properly
- The clubfoot, when the foot is inward instead of forward
Congenital or developmental defects cause a part of the body or system to not function properly.
These often cause intelligence or developmental disabilities. Congenital or developmental defects include metabolic defects, sensory problems and nervous system problems. Metabolic defects cause problems with your baby's body chemistry.
The most common types of birth or developmental defects include:
- Down syndrome, causing mental and physical retardation
- Sickle cell disease, which occurs when red blood cells are deformed
- Cystic fibrosis, causing damage to the lungs and digestive system
Defects can sometimes not be detected for months or even years after the child is born.
How is a birth defect diagnosed?
Many types of birth defects can be diagnosed during pregnancy with prenatal ultrasound to diagnose certain birth defects in the womb. More intensive screening options, such as blood tests and amniocentesis (amniotic fluid sampling), may also be performed. These tests are usually used for pregnant women at higher risk due to family history, high maternal age.
Prenatal tests can help determine if the mother has an infection or other condition that is harmful to the baby.
Physical exams and hearing tests can also help a doctor diagnose birth defects after a baby is born.
3 times of ultrasound to detect fetal malformations
- 12-14 weeks: At this time, ultrasound makes pregnancy calculation extremely accurate. In addition, this is also the only time to measure the brightness of the back of the neck to predict a number of dangerous chromosome abnormalities (causing down disease, cardiac deformity, limb, diaphragmatic hernia ...).
Beyond 14 weeks, this measurement will no longer be accurate. If the nape of the neck increases, by 18 weeks the fetus will need amniocentesis.
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