8 Most Common Diagnostic Tests For Hepatitis B
Based on the symptoms and symptoms outside of the body, it is difficult to determine whether a patient is infected with the hepatitis B virus. The most accurate diagnostic method is to test for hepatitis B. The following are some commonly used testing methods.
Testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAG)
HBsAg stands for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (hepatitis B surface antigen test). This is a test that determines whether or not a person has hepatitis B. If the test result is positive, the patient has been infected with hepatitis B. This method is divided into two types: qualitative HBsAg and quantitative HBsAg.
Qualitative HBsAg helps the doctor to determine whether a patient is infected with hepatitis B, the results of this test do not show whether the virus can develop and spread, how affected
Quantitative HBsAg helps doctors determine the amount of antigen more or less to have the appropriate treatment direction
Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAb)
HBsAb stands for Hepatitis B surface Antibody (Hepatitis B surface antigen). If the HBsAb test result is positive, it means that the patient is immune to the hepatitis B virus.
This can happen if in the past a patient had an acute hepatitis B infection or was vaccinated against hepatitis B. Therefore, patients with a positive HBsAb test result will not need to be vaccinated. It also protects against hepatitis B vaccine, and the body is completely resistant to the hepatitis B virus if it enters the body.
Blood samples for hepatitis B surface antigen (or antibody) are tested
Testing for hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb)
HBcAb or Anti - HBc is an abbreviation for Hepatitis B core Antibody, this is a test to help doctors assess whether the disease is exposed to the hepatitis B virus.
If the test result is positive or reactive, it means that the patient is or has been infected with the hepatitis B virus
when getting the vaccine.
Therefore, patients should carefully understand and avoid confusion between the two methods of testing HBcAc and HBsAb.
There are two types of HBcAb antibodies: IgM and IgG:
HBcAb IgM: An antibody that appears and rises very rapidly during acute or chronic hepatitis B infection. After the acute phase, the concentration of this antibody in the bloodstream will gradually decrease.
HBcAb IgG: Occurs during chronic hepatitis B infection.
HBV-DNA is a test to determine the number or concentration of viruses in a unit of plasma volume / serum IU / ml or copies / ml (where 1 IU will be equivalent to 5-6 copies).
The concentration of hepatitis B virus is called high when this index reaches over 10,000 IU / ml, reaching an average of 2000 - 10,000 IU / ml and a low level below 2000 IU / ml. Based on the test results, the doctor can assess the level of virus replication in liver cells.
Patients with chronic hepatitis B should monitor HBV-DNA levels in their blood for months and years to manage the disease, helping doctors determine the time of treatment, monitoring as well as assessing criteria for stopping treatment.
Illustration of the hepatitis B virus
HbeAg is an English abbreviation for the Hepatitis B envelope Antigen which means the antigen of the hepatitis B virus. HBeAg is a capsid antigen fragment of the hepatitis B virus.
When the HBeAg test is positive, accompanied by elevated liver enzymes, the liver shows signs of inflammation which means that the hepatitis B virus is active and is causing some liver damage, and is potentially contagious. highly infected.
The negative HBeAg indicates that the hepatitis B virus is dormant, temporarily inactive, almost impossible to cause damage to the liver, but doctors will still recommend that a person be examined regularly. once a month to best control the health status and activity level of the hepatitis B virus
Other liver tests
If the hepatitis B test is positive, the doctor orders the patient to perform a number of other liver tests to assess the level of viral liver damage such as the AST liver function test (GOT); ALT (GPT), GGT, ALP and bile pigmentation indices Bilirubin TP, Bilirubin TT, Bilirubin GT.
These indications are necessary to help the doctor accurately assess the patient's condition, thereby providing appropriate treatment.
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test
Alpha test - fetoprotein is a valuable test for diagnosing liver cancer. Normally, the body has a very small amount of alpha - fetoprotein, but when suffering from some diseases such as liver cancer, pregnancy, hepatitis, cirrhosis ... AFP concentration increases, about> 25 - 300 UI / ml .
The AFP concentration value is for reference and reference only, it is not possible to confirm that a person with high serum AFP concentration is suffering from liver cancer. In contrast, normal AFP levels cannot exclude patients with liver cancer because up to 20-30% of patients with primary liver cancer have low AFP levels.
The diagnosis of hepatitis B is informed.
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