Pelvic Inflammatory Disease – Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Pelvic inflammatory disease is caused by bacteria entering the reproductive organs through the cervix. The risk of getting pelvic inflammatory disease increases when you have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases.
What is pelvic inflammatory disease?
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs. The disease usually occurs when sexually transmitted bacteria spread from the vagina to the uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries.
The signs and symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease may be asymptomatic or very mild, so many women cannot detect it until they have difficulty getting pregnant or have chronic pelvic pain

Symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease
The symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease may be mild and subtle. Some women do not have any signs.
Once the infection has spread, the common symptoms will be:
Pain - from mild to severe in the lower abdomen and pelvis
Abnormal vaginal discharge or heavy, unpleasant odor
Abnormal uterine bleeding, especially during or after intercourse, between menstrual periods
Pain during sex
Fever, sometimes chills
Painful urination
Causes of pelvic inflammation
Many types of bacteria can cause pelvic inflammatory disease but gonorrhea or chlamydia are the most common
The main route of infection is when having unprotected sex.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Less common causes are bacteria that can enter the reproductive tract during menstruation and after childbirth, miscarriage or abortion causing pelvic inflammatory disease.
Several factors may increase your risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, including:
Having sex before 25 years old
There are many sexual partners
Having sex with someone who has multiple sex partners
Having sex without using a condom
Frequent vaginal douching, upsetting the balance of good and harmful bacteria in the vagina
History of pelvic inflammatory disease or sexually transmitted infection
There is a small risk of PID after an intrauterine device (IUD). This risk is usually limited to the first three weeks after insertion.
Complications of pelvic inflammatory disease
Untreated pelvic inflammatory disease can cause scar tissue and abscess to develop in the reproductive tract, affecting reproductive organs.
Complications may include:
Ectopic pregnancy
Pelvic inflammatory disease is a major cause of ectopic pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy can occur when untreated pelvic inflammatory disease causes scar tissue to grow in the fallopian tubes. The fertilized scar tissue passes through the fallopian tube to implant into the uterus
Instead, the eggs are implanted into fallopian tubes.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

An ectopic pregnancy can cause massive, life-threatening bleeding and requires urgent medical attention.
Injury to the reproductive organs can cause infertility - the inability to get pregnant because the disease leaves scars on the fallopian tubes, clogging the fallopian tubes and preventing fertilization.
Chronic pelvic pain
Pelvic inflammatory disease can cause pelvic pain that lasts months or years. Scarring in the fallopian tubes and other pelvic organs can cause pain during intercourse and ovulation.
Ovarian abscess
Pelvic inflammatory disease can cause abscesses that form in the reproductive tract. Abscesses affect the fallopian tubes and ovaries, but they can also develop in the uterus or in other pelvic organs. If the abscess is left untreated, the patient may have a life-threatening infection.
Pelvic inflammatory disease causes pain
Diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease
Your doctor can diagnose PID after hearing your patient's symptoms.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

In most cases, the doctor will test to confirm the diagnosis.
Pelvic exam to check for pelvic organs
Cervical culture to check for cervical infection
Urine tests for signs of blood, cancer and other diseases
Other additional tests include:
Pelvic ultrasound
Endometrial biopsy
Treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease is completely treatable, the doctor will appoint patients to use oral or intravenous antibiotics to resolve the infection.
See an emergency doctor if any of the following symptoms occur:
Severe abdominal pain
Nausea and vomiting
High fever
Vaginal discharge has a foul odor
If you have signs and symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease, see your doctor as soon as possible.
Smelling vaginal discharge, painful urination or menstrual bleeding can also be a symptom of a sexually transmitted infection (STI). If these signs and symptoms occur, stop having sex and see a doctor early. Prompt treatment of an STI can help prevent PID.
Prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease
Safe sex
Use condoms every time you have sex, limit the number of sexual partners you have and don't have sexual intercourse with someone indiscriminately.
Learn contraceptives carefully
Many unsafe forms of contraception increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Condoms should be used to reduce the risk of sexual transmission.
Do not douche the vagina too hard
Douching is too strong to upset the balance of bacteria in the vagina, so only a gentle cleaning with feminine hygiene solution..

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