Perforation Of The Eardrum: Causes, Symptoms And Precautions
Causes of perforation or tearing of the eardrum are usually caused by: ear infection, foreign body puncture, ear fracture, near a loud bang or by being hit in the ear ... so every person should pay attention to preventive measures to avoid getting Perforation of the eardrum affecting hearing ability.
Eardrum and perforation
The eardrum is a membrane that divides the outer and middle ears, oval, slightly convex, like a cone with the hollow parts of the cone facing outwards, and tilted at an angle of 30 degrees to the bottom of the ear canal.
Normal eardrums are translucent, bright white, or pinkish-gray. Normally, we can see through the eardrum.
Perforation of the eardrum is a condition in which the eardrum has holes, which can lead to hearing loss or make the middle ear more susceptible to infection
The eardrum usually heals within a few weeks and does not require any treatment, but sometimes it may require surgery to repair.
Visual perforation of the eardrum
Symptomatic perforation of the eardrum
Pain is the main symptom of perforation of the eardrum, for some people the pain may be severe. Pain may last throughout the day or may increase or decrease in intensity.
Usually after the pain disappears, the ear begins to drain like water, has blood or pus due to a broken eardrum. A puncture caused by an infection of the middle ear often causes bleeding.
Ear infections are more likely to occur in young children, people with colds or the flu and in areas with poor air quality.
Patients may experience temporary hearing loss or hearing loss in the affected ear, other symptoms such as tinnitus, dizziness.
Causes of perforation of the eardrum
Middle ear infection (otitis media)
Otitis media often results in a buildup of fluid in the middle ear, the pressure from which can cause the eardrum to burst
The activity that causes changes in pressure in the ear that leads to a perforation of the eardrum is called barotrauma.
When the air pressure in the middle ear and the air pressure in an unbalanced environment affect the eardrum.
Activities that cause barotrauma include:
Take a plane
Drive high speed
Blow directly into ears
Changes in pressure when traveling can cause perforation of the eardrum
Loud sounds or explosions (sound trauma)
A loud noise or banging sound from an explosion or gunfire can cause eardrum perforation.
Foreign matter in the ear
Using a cotton swab or a hairpin to pick up the ear can cause a hole in the eardrum
Severe head injury
Severe trauma, such as a fractured skull, can cause dislocations or damage the structure of the middle ear and inner eardrum.
Complications of eardrum perforation
The eardrum has two main roles:
Reception of sound waves: When sound waves reach the ear, the eardrum vibrates, converting sound waves into nerve impulses that help the cell perceive sound in the inner ear.
Ear protection: The eardrum acts as a barrier to protect the middle ear from water, bacteria and other foreign substances.
If the eardrum is punctured and does not heal automatically after 3 to 6 months, complications can include:
Hearing loss: Usually hearing loss is temporary. Only last until the eardrum hole has healed. The size and location of the tear may affect the extent of hearing loss.
Middle ear infection (otitis media): A punctured eardrum can cause bacteria to enter the ear. If the perforation of the eardrum does not heal, it is more likely to be an infection (recurrent or chronic).
Middle ear cyst (cholesteatoma): chronic otitis media in the ear canal with horned Malpighi epithelium. The disease can develop corrosion and destroy components of the middle ear and nearby structures, which will cause significant loss of hearing.
Perforation of the outer eardrum affecting hearing ability also leads to complications such as otitis media, middle ear cysts
Treatment of perforation of the eardrum
The eardrum does not need to be treated because the eardrum is able to heal itself in a few weeks or months provided that the ear is kept dry and invaded by bacteria.
Pain relievers with paracetamol or ibuprofen can be used if you have soreness or discomfort.
In case of serious perforation of the eardrum affecting the hearing, it is necessary to treat intervention of the eardrum patch in medical facilities.
Prevention of perforation of the eardrum
Follow these methods to avoid having a perforation in the eardrum:
Get treatment for middle ear infections
Be aware of the signs and symptoms of middle ear infection, including ear pain, fever, stuffy nose and hearing loss.
Babies with middle ear infections often fuss and may refuse to eat. Need to see a doctor to prevent affecting the eardrum.
Protect ears during flight
If possible, do not fly if you have a cold or stuffy nose, tinnitus. During takeoff and landing, use earplugs to balance pressure, yawn, or chew gum.
Do not put foreign objects in your ears
Never try to remove earwax with things like a cotton swab, paper clip, or hairpin. These items can easily tear or puncture the eardrum. Also teach children not to put any foreign objects in their ears.
Protect ears from loud bangs
If your job is required to hear loud noises or loud sounds, protect your ears by.
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