Prevent Overweight And Obesity In Children
Overweight - obesity (TC-BP) is the condition of accumulating body fat as a result of an energy imbalance, in which the energy input exceeds the energy consumed. TC-BP is seen at any age, including children and adults.
Why do children have TC-BP?
Children with TC-BP are due to a combination of causes and interactions between environmental factors and genetic factors. The main reason is due to inappropriate nutrition and less physical activity. Energy rations exceed the amount of energy consumed, so the excess is converted into accumulated fat in organizations.
High-fat, high-energy diets are strongly associated with increased TC-BP. Less physical activity, reduced activity (physical training, walking, swimming, cycling .
); increase static activity (watch radio, play games ...) reduce energy consumption, increase fat accumulation; Disorders of the activity of hormones.
Growth hormone (GH) is involved in fat loss, the process is most intense at night, so sleep deprivation will reduce fat and also disturb the production of regulatory hormones. Eating, reducing leptin production helps the brain feel full but increasing ghrelin production stimulates appetite so children eat more.
In addition, children whose parents are TC-BP, too high birth weight, stunting malnutrition are all at risk of TC-BP; Children with TC-BP often gluttonous, fast food, or snack, like sweet food, fast food (fast food) increases blood sugar and insulin insulin, causing hypoglycemia in response to increased appetite
Impact of TC-BP on children's health
Studies by the Institute of Nutrition and Nutrition Center in Ho Chi Minh City show that, in Hanoi (2003), the ratio of TC-BP in primary students was 4.1% (1997), increasing to 7, 9% (2002) and 4.9% for children aged 4-6 years (2003).
In Ho Chi Minh City, the ratio of TC-BP among primary school students was 12.2% (1997) increased to 22.7% (2004) and children under 5 years old was 2% (1996) to 3.3%. (2001).
- TC-BP in children greatly affects nutrition status, long-term health and longevity.
- TC-BP children are susceptible to chronic and non-contagious diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia.
Research by the Institute of Nutrition in Hanoi primary school students (2002) showed that TC-BP children had dyslipidemia, 66.7% increased triglycerides; 10.5% increase in total cholesterol; 5.7% increased LDL-C and 5.7% decreased HDL-C. The prevalence of hypertension in children with TC-BP was 16.
6%, significantly higher than that of normal children.
- Puberty: earlier but also stopped early growth. The height of TC-BP children before puberty is usually higher than their age, but as adults, it tends to be lower than their age.
- Child obesity is full body fat, fat accumulates in the chest, abdomen, buttocks, which makes children tired, short of breath on exertion, dull ache in the limbs.
- In terms of psychology, children are easily inferiority complex, ashamed, or teased by friends, life is difficult to integrate into the community, reduce academic results.
- Expensive medical service costs affecting the family economy and society.
What to do when a child has TC-BP?
The general rule is to adjust your diet and increase physical activity to limit weight gain.
Adjust the diet: Reduce fat, carbohydrate, reduce rice replaced with corn; Strengthen fruits and vegetables to provide fiber; Reduce sweets, soft drinks, candies, chocolates; Processing food in the form of steamed, boiled and fried fried; Properly adjust the distance between meals, do not let children too hungry.
However, the diet needs to have enough nutrients, a balanced diet for children to continue growing and developing, avoiding over-restrictive eating, causing nutritional deficiencies.
Strengthening physical activity: Increasing the type of physical activity suitable for each age group to consume energy; Reduce time spent watching TV, playing video games.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends not watching TV for children under 2 years of age and for older children to watch TV and video games for up to 2 hours per day; Medication and surgical treatments currently only apply to adults.
Prevention of TC-BP in children
Nutrition-related TC-BP is a disease that can be prevented with proper nutrition in parallel with proper physical activity. For young children, it is necessary to take good care of them right in the womb to avoid undernutrition or excess nutrition in infants.
Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months, breastfeeding for up to 2 years and complementary feeding help children grow and develop to the maximum extent; For older children and adolescents, eating and drinking should ensure nutritional needs, energy intake should not exceed high.
Encourage children to eat vegetables and fruits, limit the use of energy-rich foods, poor micronutrients, sugary drinks, and soft drinks and encourage children to participate in physical training and sports activities moderation, limiting watching TV, playing video games, staying up too late.
It is important to improve the knowledge of appropriate nutrition practices in the community and there should be a close combination between health and education, between families and schools in controlling children's diets and activities.
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