Preventing Agents Of Diarrhea In The Summer
The hot and humid summer climate is favorable for many agents that cause diarrhea to enter the body. The disease is common in places with poor sanitary conditions, contaminated food. The elderly, children are vulnerable subjects, can kidney failure, vascular collapse if not emergency timely.
Diarrhea with manifestations of dysentery syndrome
Bacillus dysentery: The cause is caused by Shigella. Clinical manifestations with symptoms of cramping abdominal pain, vomiting, passing out ignoring fish blood or like meat washes, fever. Early treatment with specific antibiotics is required, but attention should be paid to bacterial antibiotic resistance.
Escherichia Coli (E. Coli): there are 3 strains that can cause invasive diarrhea with painful dysentery syndrome, tenesmus and nasal bloody stools
Coli cause intestinal pathology; E. Coli toxin invades the intestine; E.Coli toxin causing intestinal bleeding.
Yesinia Enterocolica: The source of the disease is water, contaminated food such as milk, vegetables, meat causing gastritis, intestinal or mesenteric lymphadenitis, sometimes with bacteremia. Clinical manifestations: severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever and bloody stools. In children, see arthritis and erythema nodosum.
Campylobacter jejuni: Pathogen is meat and poultry
Patients with mild fever, loose stool with mucus and blood, abdominal pain, possibly hanging lymphadenitis. Usually resolves and heals after 5 - 8 days.
Diarrhea caused by food poisoning infection
The disease is not only found in poor and underdeveloped countries but also in developed countries with high living standards. Foodborne infections can be divided into two types:
Eat foods that contain bacteria that can potentially enter the intestinal mucosa and cause illness such as Salmonella (S. typhi murium and S. enteritidis). The most common disease. Gastrointestinal disease caused by eating food contaminated with Salmonella.
Incubation averages 12 - 36 hours after eating.
Sudden onset of fever, epigastric or peritoneal abdominal pain, without straining, frequent diarrhea, rotten stools, plenty of water. Feces sometimes have mucus, blood, almost like bacilli. Severe cases have electrolyte disorders due to dehydration (dry lips, sunken eyes, thirst). If not diagnosed and treated in time, patients may die from cardiovascular failure.
Eating food containing toxins of bacteria has already formed in food and this toxin causes disease (toxins of Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium Perfringens, Clostridium Botulinum, Bacillus cereus and Vibrio Parahaemolyticus). Clinical manifestations with diarrhea several times a day, abdominal pain, no fever, nausea and vomiting. Without timely treatment will lead to dehydration and death.
Causes by cholera and E.Coli
Cholera: Caused by Vibrio cholerae. Incubation averages 5 days. Clinical manifestations of bowel movements many times / day, stool like rice water, no abdominal pain, no fever. The disease causes epidemics. May be fatal if not properly diagnosed and treated.
E. Coli produces intestinal toxin: causes increased secretion and electrolyte into intestine, no inflammation.
The source of infection is food and water. Incubation 24 - 72 hours, may have a low fever, watery stools. In developing countries, the prevalence of diarrhea among children is 5 - 30%. Especially the important cause of diarrhea for travelers. It causes mild diarrhea but lasts up to 5 weeks.
The above cases should be distinguished from the following: acute diarrhea caused by Enterovirus or causing small, localized epidemics and mainly among children. Diarrhea caused by parasites. Diarrhea caused by poisoning of chemicals sprayed on vegetables.
How to manage diarrhea?
Treatment is mainly rehydration and electrolytes, so must accurately assess the status of electrolyte dehydration.
If mild dehydration: Replenish water by drinking while still drinking. Often use oresol. Mix in 1 liter of water. If not, use porridge water, cooled boiled water mixed with salt and sugar just enough (1 teaspoon of salt + 8 teaspoons of sugar + 1 liter of water).
Severe dehydration: when the loss of water is greater than 5% of the body weight or when drinking without results, you must replace water by intravenous infusion. The total 24-hour infusion will include weight loss and normal daily water needs. The infusion is mainly saline, isotonic saline solution.
If hypokalemia must compensate potassium.
Antibiotics are indicated for patients with signs of infectious diarrhea (leukocytosis in the stool) or patients with immune-compromised lesions, the elderly, children.
Depending on the etiology of appropriate antibiotic use: For bacilli dysentery, Salmonella, E.Coli use quinolone antibiotics such as ciprofl oxacin, ofl oxacin, pefl oxacin. Do not use for children and pregnant women. With Jejuni Campylobacter for Erythromycine in case of infection. With commas, take tetracycline or chloramphenicol or biseptol..
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