Prevention, Identification And Treatment Of Rickets In Children
Children with rickets are due to vitamin D deficiency, which affects the absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. The disease is common in children under 3 years old.
The main reason is due to lack of sunlight, due to excessive abstinence and a diet poor in calcium - phosphorus; Children who are not breastfed are more likely to develop rickets than breastfed babies. Rickets will deform the skeleton.
Signs that a child has rickets
- Babies often cry, sleep, or startle, sweating when sleeping.
- Hair loss occurs behind the nape of the neck forming a donut.
- Symptoms in the bone: broad fontanel, soft fontanel, long fontanel, with top tumors, goiter (prominent forehead), flatheaded catfish.
- Cases of severe rickets have sequelae: ribs, chicken breasts, ankles, wrists, X-shaped, O-shaped legs
- Teething slowly, muscle tone, constipation.
- Delayed development of movement: slow to stumble, crawl, walk, stand ...
- In case of acute rickets: children may have seizures due to hypocalcaemia.
- Premature babies, giving birth to twins.
- Babies fed with cow's milk.
- Young too plump
- Babies born in the winter.
Differentiate rickets and stunting
Stunted children: children who are malnourished, have lower weight and height measurements than normal children, can also include rickets or not. Rickets: can be seen in very plump children, due to higher demand for calcium, phosphorus than normal children.
What to do when a child has rickets?
- Daily sunbathing: expose your baby's legs, hands, back, and abdomen for 10-15 minutes in the morning (before 9am). In the winter, there is no sunshine for children to take electric bath in physiotherapy department at hospitals.
Under the skin, there is a pre-vitamin D of 7 dehydrocholesterol, which is activated by ultraviolet rays of sunlight, the pro-vitamin will be converted into vitamin D. Vitamin D works to regulate metabolism and absorption of calcium phosphorus, the sun must be shone directly on the skin to work, if through the fabric will be very little effect.
- Give children vitamin D 4000 UI / day for 4 - 8 weeks, in case of children with pneumonia, diarrhea need to increase the dose of 5,000 - 10,000 UI / day for 1 month, or give children vitamin D 200,000 UI / drink, Repeated injection 3 months in the first year.
- Give children more calcium preparations such as calcium B1 - B2 - B6: 1 - 2 tubes / day, older children can eat calcium nuggets 1-2 teaspoons / day.
- Breastfeeding; Eat foods that contain lots of calcium: milk, crab, shrimp, fish in daily meals (need to eliminate the concept that children eat bone, chicken leg bone will prevent rickets).
- Add grease to children's daily meals: because vitamin D is an oil-soluble type, if the diet lacks fat, even if taking vitamin D, children will not be able to absorb it, so they still get rickets.
Prevention of rickets for children
- When pregnant mothers have to work reasonably to avoid premature birth, vitamin D can be taken at 7 months of pregnancy: 600,000UI / 3 weeks, 200,000UI weekly.
- After birth, both mother and baby should not be in a dark and closed room, in a cool and well-lit room.
- After 2 weeks of birth, let the children sunbathe for 15-20 minutes / day in the morning (before 9 o'clock).
- Give your child vitamin D 400UI / day during the first year especially in the winter.
- When children eat supplements: feed children with foods that are high in calcium such as milk, eggs, shrimp, crabs, fish, greens and grease..
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