Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness with very diverse clinical symptoms. The most common symptoms of the disease are paranoia and hallucinations, which govern the behavior of the patient.
The disease usually starts at the age of 25 and lasts a lifetime, meeting in all walks of life. Patients gradually become a burden to the family and society.
Reason
Genetic factor
Where is the gene responsible for schizophrenia still unknown? But the authors agree that schizophrenia is not caused by one gene, but by a combination of genes.
These genes are located at different positions of the chromosomes. Chromosomes that contain disease genes are chromosomes 6, 8, 10, 13 and 22.
Dopamine factor
Genetic disorders in schizophrenia lead to overactive dopamine system

This assumption is based on the following two evidences:
Sedatives that block dopamine receptors in the brain are effective in treating schizophrenia.


Schizophrenia


Drugs that increase the activity of dopamine such as amphetamine and cocaine cause psychotic symptoms similar to schizophrenia.
Symptom
Positive symptoms
Positive symptoms include excessive changes in thought processes (paranoia), perception (hallucinations), speech and notification (chaotic language) and behavioral control (youth and stress behavior tonicity).
These positive symptoms can be divided into two different levels: the degree of psychosis including delusions and hallucinations, and the degree of chaos including language and behavioral disorders.
The paranoid
Delusions are the basic psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Paranoia must have the following characteristics: false; immobilized on the patient; dominates patient behavior; are not common religious beliefs; The patient loses all ability to criticize (ie never admit his or her thoughts are wrong).
Some thoughts may be considered paranoid in one culture (for example, witchcraft and talismans) but are considered normal in another culture.
Paranoid content may include many different topics, most commonly seen in schizophrenia: Paranoid paranoia, related paranoia, checked paranoia, egotistical paranoia or periodic paranoid
heck.


Schizophrenia


The illusion
Illusion is the perception without an object. Hallucinations can be in any of the senses (for example, hallucinations, hallucinations, hallucinations, tactile senses, taste hallucinations), but phantoms are most common and are more specific for schizophrenia.
+ Virtual vision is found in 60-70% of patients with schizophrenia. Patients hear voices that are not real, but are believed to be true. They are often divided into virtual and fake virtual sound.
* Virtual sounds are voices that patients hear from the environment, outside the patient's body. These voices are very clear, the patient can distinguish whether it is a male or female voice, an accustomed voice or a stranger ..


Schizophrenia

.
True virtual vision is at an early stage of schizophrenia. Over time, the real virtual sound will gradually change into a fake virtual sound.
* Fake voice sounds are voices that are very vague but appear in the patient's body (in the head, in the stomach, in the patient's heart). Therefore, patients can not distinguish which voice it is, whether it is a man or a woman, an acquaintance or a stranger ...
Sometimes false sound is perceived to be the patient's own thoughts.


Schizophrenia

They are like the patients thoughts.
The symptoms are negative
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia indicate the loss of available mental activity. In the early stages, they are very discreet, difficult to detect. After a few years of getting sick, these symptoms become more and more apparent and at the stage of the sequelae the patient will only have negative symptoms.
There are 3 main negative symptoms in schizophrenia: emotional calm, poor language and loss of will.
Recurrence of schizophrenia
Without intensive treatment, 60-70% of patients will relapse after one year, nearly 90% of patients will relapse after 2 years. The recurrence rate in patients with schizophrenia who undergoes continuous consolidation by drug after 1 year is less than 20%, after 2 years is less than 30%.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease, except for some patients who have completely recovered after many years of treatment.


Schizophrenia

After each course of treatment, the disease is usually stable, but it is difficult for the patient to return to normal as before.
Schizophrenia often recurs. Without intensive treatment, the recurrence rate of schizophrenia is 10% of patients / month. After 1 year from the date of stopping the drug, most patients relapse.
The recurrence of schizophrenia depends on the following factors: disease pattern and disease progression; no reinforcement or too short reinforcement; strong psychological stress; alcohol and drug abuse; Combined body disease.
Treatment
The principles of treatment
Cut off the psychotic symptoms of the acute phase with sedatives and specific therapies.
Reinforced treatment against re-.

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