[summary] Need To Know From A To Z About Urinary Stones

Urinary stones are a very common condition today. Urinary stones include kidney stones, bladder stones, ureteral stones and urethral stones.
Following is the detailed and necessary information about urinary stones and how to treat urolithiasis.
Urinary system
The urinary system is located in the abdominal cavity, responsible for the natural filtering function of the body, excreting toxins (urea, uric acid, ammonia) out of the urine.
The urinary system includes:
2 main functional kidneys are dialysis;
2 sides of the ureter (tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder);
1 functional bladder contains urine before excretion;
1 urethra (duct from the bladder to the urinary hole, bringing urine out of the body).
In men, there is also a prostate that is located in the urinary system and the urethra also functions to guide semen out of the body when ejaculating.
The urinary system has important implications for life.
The urinary system is healthy, the waste is expelled from the body

The urinary system is not good, waste builds up in the body, accumulating causing obstruction.


[summary] Need To Know From A To Z About Urinary Stones


If kidney failure is linked to many other important organs in the body.
Illustration of urinary system
Causes of urinary stone formation
Urinary stones are mostly made up of kidneys, then travel in the urine stream to other places of the urinary tract such as the ureter, bladder, and urethra.
Urinary stones are formed from the tendency to crystallize, depositing crystals in urine.
The composition of urine consists of crystals and colloids (essentially mucoprotein, mucin, nucleic acid ...)
When the concentration of colloidal substances becomes concentrated (due to infection, stress, cushing's syndrome leads to urinary tract inflammation, alkaline and stagnant urine), crystals are likely to form stones especially in conditions with additional urinary tract foreign bodies.


[summary] Need To Know From A To Z About Urinary Stones


Classification of urinary stones
Classification of urolithiasis has many ways. Can be classified by gravel properties or gravel location.
Classification of urological stones by chemical composition
Inorganic stones
Calcium oxalate stones: usually black, clear radiated spines;
Calcium phosphate stones: pale yellow or milky, fragile;
Calcium carbonate stone: chalky white, soft and brittle.
Organic pebbles
Urate stones: milky white, opaque, may not appear soft and recurrent;
Systin stones: light yellow color, quilts or recurrence;
Struvic stones: yellowish white, often caused by a Proteus-type urinary tract infection.
In Vietnam, most people with urinary stone disease are inorganic stones with> 80% calcium calcium oxalate stones and often exist in a mixture of many chemical components.
Classify urolithiasis by location
Classification by location has types: kidney stones, ureteral stones, bladder stones, urethral stones. In which the incidence of:
Kidney stones: 40% including: pyelonephritis, pyelonephritis, pyelonephritis, coral gravel, semi-coral gravel;
Ureteral stones: 28%;
Bladder stones: 26%;
Urethral stones: 4%;
Illustration of urological stones
Characteristics of urinary stones
Number of urinary stones
Not fixed from 1 to hundreds of tablets;
Urolithiasis before treatment (lithotripsy) usually has 1 tablet.
Urinary stone size
The size of the urinary stone is not fixed from and mm to a few centimeters;
Pyelonephritis usually has a larger size than the stones in other locations.


[summary] Need To Know From A To Z About Urinary Stones


The shape of a urinary stone
Urinary stones have a variety of shapes, depending on the type of stone;
Kidney stones are usually coral or parrot-shaped stones;
Ureteral stones are usually elongated along the ureter.
How do urinary stones cause damage to the urinary system?
Pebbles cause a blockage
Urinary stones in the renal pelvis can cause complete or partial obstruction, and the size of the stones causes the renal parenchyma to dilate, the capacity of the pyramids increases, and fibrous parenchyma causes gradual loss of kidney function. gradually.
If stones in the ureter cause obstruction of the ureter also dilates peristalsis and fibrosis gradually.
The stones in the bladder are too large and cannot escape from the urethra, which can cause urinary retention, upstream infections, serious kidney damage or bladder leakage or dangerous atrophy of the bladder.
In the case of kidney stones simultaneously obstructing both sides of the kidneys and ureters can cause acute kidney failure.
Damage due to rubbing
The most common types of stones are hard and thorny stones such as calcium oxalate stones, which, when rubbed, can tear and scratch the lining of the renal pelvis and ureter to facilitate urinary infection.
The friction also causes bleeding in the urinary system, accelerating the process of fibrosis of the renal parenchyma and urethra, narrowing the urinary tract causing more obstruction.


[summary] Need To Know From A To Z About Urinary Stones

The end result is kidney failure.
Urinary tract infection
Urinary infections can occur due to obstruction or rubbing of stones with the walls of the renal pelvis, ureters, etc. causing edema, mucosal ulcers, and fibrosis gradually leading to kidney failure.
In addition, the process of urinary infection also eliminates many corpses of bacteria, leukocytes, and epithelial cells. The trend of deposition, crystallization in the urinary tract is incessant, in the condition of having more and more foreign objects, it will continue to form new stones.
Renal failure due to stones
The cause of urinary stones
Factors that increase the risk of urinary stones:
Family or personal history: If someone in your family has a urinary stone, you are also likely to have a stone. People used to have urinary stones.

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