The Body Damage Due To Cold
In the winter, excessive temperatures often cause damage to the human body. In our country, with cold climate characteristics but high humidity should cause more severe injuries than injuries caused by cold alone.
To avoid unnecessary consequences, to ensure the health of the cold season, each of us should also equip ourselves with the basic knowledge about the damage caused by the cold. Cold injury depends on the low temperature, the time of exposure to low temperatures, environmental conditions, protective equipment, and the health status of each person.
Factors that increase the risk of cold injury?
Cold damage can be increased by factors such as low temperature (the lower the temperature, the greater the damage), the humid climate, the children, the elderly, the malnourished, the exhausted, chronic diseases such as: Hypoglycemia, diabetes, hypothyroidism, people who are inactive for a long time (such as stroke, spinal cord injury), people with many injuries, injuries, people exposed to low temperatures, people with peripheral vascular disease, people with impaired brain function: alcoholism, people with bacterial infections ...
Stretch: The slightest injury due to cold
This type of injury usually fully recovered after being warmed and there is no tissue damage. Repeated involvement of this type can result in atrophy or loss of subcutaneous fat.
Freezing: The frozen tissue area with microvascular obstruction leads to tissue hypoxia. Some of the tissue damage may result from reperfusion when warming the victim to levels such as:
Grade 1: There is red masonry but no necrosis.
Grade 2: There are floating burns such as burns on the congestion background with necrosis of a shallow surface of the skin.
Grade 3: Manifested by total skin necrosis and spread to the lower part of the skin and often accompanied by petechiae.
Grade 4: There is necrosis deep down to the musculoskeletal joint
Injury not frozen
Injury to the hands and feet (trech feet): often due to prolonged exposure to wet, dirty environments, under low temperature conditions (not to the point of freezing).
The entire foot, hand may be dark purple, but there is no evidence of deep tissue damage. Congestive edema develops rapidly within 48 hours and causes a burning sensation followed by numbness and loss of pain. Damaged tissue causes redness, blistering, dark purple and ulcers. This type of injury often has complications including: bacterial infection, cellulitis, lymphadenitis, or gangrene. Charge: These are localized edema lesions on the extremities caused by exposure to low temperatures.
Charges are classified: Acute when lesions appear within 12 - 24 hours after being cold and last for 1-2 weeks. Chronic charge occurs when repeated exposure to low temperatures, the lesions often persist, leaving scars or atrophy of the damaged area. The charge is often seen on the face, front of the tibia, back of hands, and back of foot are areas that are not kept warm in cold weather.
The lesions are usually burgundy, itchy and swollen.
Continued exposure to cold will lead to ulceration, bleeding and scarring. The itchy sensation initially goes away and is replaced by congestion and much pain.
When the body is exposed to a cold environment, the body's reaction is to shrink pores and blood vessels under the skin to avoid losing heat. The body then generates heat by increasing muscle activity (manifested by tremors). If at this stage, the body is warmed again, there will be no special consequences. If the body continues to be exposed to cold, the enzyme system as well as the hormones of the whole body (which only works well at temperatures of 36 - 370C) will decrease or stop working. Consequently, the function of the organs will be disturbed such as arrhythmia, hypotension, respiratory failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, convulsions, coma and patients will die quickly.
Management of cold injuries
Upon detecting patients with cold lesions, quickly remove patients from low-temperature areas. Incubate or warm the patient with a heated room. Soak in warm water (400C for about 20-30 minutes until the genus is warm. Do not warm with hot, dry heat and massage. You can give the patient a warm blanket, drink warm water.
Immediately detect the risk of death such as hypotension, arrhythmia ...
for timely emergency management. At the health facility, if pain is severe, analgesic, infusion (warmed) may be used. necessary.
Closely monitor the patient's condition, avoid vasoconstrictor drugs. Taking antibiotics when there is infection, excision, skin patch necrosis, physiotherapy. Using anti-adrenergic drugs, calcium channel blockers are often effective vasodilation, repair damage.
Prevention of cold damage
Keep warm when exposed or working in a cold environment. Pay special attention to parts of the body that are exposed to high temperatures such as hands, feet, poorly perfected areas such as the front of the tibia.
Eating well ensures the calories and water you need for your body to function in a cold environment. Do not work too long under low temperatures.
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