What Is Nipt Test? What Tests Detect Diseases?
The NIPT noninvasive prenatal test serves as a method to determine the risk that the fetus will be born with certain genetic abnormalities.
What is NIPT test?
NIPT test (NIPT - Non-Invasive Prenatal Test) is a non-invasive prenatal test that will analyze small pieces of DNA moving in the blood of pregnant women.
Unlike most DNA found inside the nucleus of a cell, these small strands of DNA are freely floating and do not reside in the cells, thus called non-cellular DNA or free DNA. extracellular (cfDNA - Circulating free DNA).
During pregnancy, the maternal blood contains a mixture of cfDNA that comes from maternal and placental cells
These cells are put into the mother's blood during pregnancy. The DNA in placental cells is often identical to the fetal DNA
What syndrome does the NIPT test detect?
NIPT is often used to look for chromosomal disorders caused by an excess or lack of a copy of a chromosome. NIPT mainly diagnoses the fetus with the following syndromes;
Down syndrome (trisomy 21, caused by an extra chromosome 21)
Trisomy 18 (caused by an extra chromosome 18)
Trisomy 13 (caused by an extra chromosome 13)
Add or lack copies of X and Y chromosomes (sex chromosomes).
The accuracy of the test varies according to the disorder.
NIPT may include screening for additional chromosomal disorders caused by missing or replicated parts of the chromosome. NIPT is beginning to be used to examine genetic disorders caused by changes (variants) in individual genes. As technology improves and the cost of genetic testing decreases, researchers hope that NIPT will become available for more genetic conditions.
Is NIPT test dangerous for an unborn baby?
NIPT is considered non-invasive because it only takes blood from the mother and is not dangerous to the fetus
Accuracy of the NIPT test
Note that NIPT is only a screening test, so it will not give a definitive answer about whether the fetus has a genetic disease. The test can only estimate the risk under certain conditions of increase or decrease.
In some cases, the NIPT result indicates an increased risk of genetic abnormalities when the fetus is actually unaffected (false positive) or the results show a reduced risk of genetic abnormalities when the fetus is actually influence (false negative). Because NIPT analyzes both the fetal and maternal cfDNA, the test can detect the genetic condition in the mother.
There must be enough fetal cfDNA in the mother's blood to be able to identify the fetal chromosomal abnormalities. The ratio of cfDNA in the mother's blood from the placenta is called the fetus.
Generally, the fetal cfDNA rate must be above 4%, usually occurring around the 10th week of pregnancy. A low rate of cfDNA in an unborn baby can result in the inability to perform tests or false-negative results.
The reason for the low rate of fetal cfDNA may be due to early NIPT test in pregnancy, sampling error, maternal obesity and fetal abnormality.
There are NIPT methods for analyzing fetal cfDNA. To identify the chromosome copy, the most common method is to count all cfDNA segments (both fetus and mother).
If the percentage of cfDNA from each chromosome is expected, then the fetus will reduce the risk of chromosomes (negative test results).
If the percentage of cfDNA from a specific chromosome is more than expected, then the fetus is likely to have increased trisomy status (positive test result).
A positive screening result will require additional tests to confirm the result.
NIPT antenatal test subjects
Although it is not a compulsory test, it is recommended that pregnant women perform this test. Especially pregnant mothers who carry the following risk factors:
Pregnant after 35 years old
Personal or family history of having chromosomal abnormalities
Making artificial insemination, multiple pregnancy
History of miscarriage, premature birth with no known cause, birth defects
Prenatal test results such as Double test and abnormal Triple test
Working or living in hazardous or polluted environment .
The NIPT screening decision is an individual decision, so women should take time to determine what is best for them and follow the advice of an obstetrician.
Reputable NIPT non-invasive prenatal address
In Hanoi, Hopital General Hospital has implemented a NIPT non-invasive screening test and has received the trust of many pregnant women.
When testing at Hopital, pregnant women will receive accurate prenatal screening results, counseled by a team of experienced experts on health. . Dịch vụ: Thiết kế website, quảng cáo google, đăng ký website bộ công thương uy tín
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