What Is The Placenta, Problems That The Pregnant Mother Should Know
The placenta is an independent organization, not simply a place to provide nutrition from the mother to the baby, it is like a cushion, maintains the living environment, so that the fetus develops healthy.
The placenta transfers blood, oxygen, nutrition and anything in the mother's blood to the fetus. On the contrary, it helps eliminate waste from the baby's blood to the mother's body for the mother's body to handle itself. The placenta also produces hormones, protecting the baby from infections and harmful diseases.
What is the placenta?
The placenta is a growing organ in your uterus during pregnancy. This structure provides oxygen and nutrients to your growing baby and removes waste products from your baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of your uterus and the umbilical cord of the baby arises from there. Organs are usually attached to the upper, side, front or rear of the uterus
What affects the placental health?
Different factors can affect the health of the placenta during pregnancy, some are modifiable and some are not. For example:
- Maternal age: Some placental problems are more common in older women, especially after age 40.
Early rupture of membranes: During pregnancy, your baby is surrounded and cushioned by a fluid-filled membrane called amniotic sac. If the bag leaks or breaks before labor begins, the risk of some placental problems increases.
- High blood pressure: High blood pressure can affect your placenta.
- Twins or other twins: If you are pregnant with more than one baby, you may increase your risk of certain placental problems.
- Coagulopathy: Any condition that weakens your blood clotting ability or increases its clotting ability increases the risk of certain placental problems
- Previous uterine surgery: If you had a previous surgery on your uterus, such as section C or surgery to remove fibroids, you are at high risk of having some problems.
Past placenta problem: If you have had a placental problem in your previous pregnancy, you may be at a higher risk of having it again.
- Substance abuse: Some placental problems are more common in women who smoke or use illegal drugs, such as cocaine, during pregnancy.
- Abdominal trauma: Injury to your abdomen - such as from a fall or other type of attack - increases the risk of the placenta being separated early from the uterus (breaking the placenta).
3 placental problems during pregnancy
During the second half of pregnancy, some problems can occur with the placenta. In some cases, the placenta is damaged due to an infection or blood clots. This abnormality can lead to miscarriage, fetal growth retardation, premature birth, and excessive bleeding during labor.
In some cases, the placenta slips from the wall of the uterus, clings too tightly or sticks to the wrong position.
Vaginal bleeding is a sign that can alert the placenta. Or by ultrasound, periodic pregnancy check, abnormalities in the placenta are also detected.
The placenta leaves the uterine wall before birth, usually in the last 3 months but also earlier (at 20 weeks).
Risk: Having a placenta causes the baby to not receive enough oxygen and nutrients, causing blood to the mother and increasing the risk of preterm birth. Factors that increase the risk of placental rupture: uncontrolled high blood pressure; pregnant women smoke, drink alcohol; pregnant women abdominal trauma; abnormalities in the cervix or umbilical cord; over 35 years old; early amniotic fluid flow; Mesothelioma.
Symptoms: Vaginal bleeding, sometimes accompanied by discomfort and uterine pain; sudden or constant abdominal pain.
Diagnosis and treatment: Pregnant women should go for medical examination and ultrasound. If mild, the doctor will give birth early (normal or cesarean delivery), avoiding the risk of a serious placenta.
In most cases, pregnant women need hospitalization to monitor.
Placenta praevia (Placenta previa)
The placenta covers part (or all) of the cervix.
Risk: When the baby is born, he or she will be stopped at the cervix (cannot go out). The cervix is thin, begins to dilate; The blood vessels that connect the placenta to the uterus may wear, leading to bleeding. If bleeding is serious, occurring during labor, it can be dangerous for both mother and baby.
Factors that increase risk: Smoking, using drugs; a history of uterine surgery; a history of abortion; multiple pregnancy.
Symptom: In some cases, low placental adhesion is asymptomatic, detected only by ultrasound. If low-lying placenta occurs in the first half of pregnancy, it will most likely correct itself.
In the second half of pregnancy, the signs may be vaginal bleeding, no pain.
Diagnosis and treatment: The doctor will examine and ultrasound for you. If there is no bleeding, there is nothing to worry about, the doctor will continue to monitor the mother and baby. Pregnant women can be treated with corticosteroids, helping the baby's lungs to complete, if the mother must give birth before 34 weeks. At 36 weeks, the doctor can check the amniotic fluid to see if the baby's lungs are complete. If the baby's lungs are well developed, a woman may be offered a cesarean section. If the bleeding does not stop, the mother can be born. Caesarean section l.
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