Who Is Susceptible To Bronchiectasis?
Bronchiectasis is a condition of irreversible relaxation of small and medium bronchi, accompanied by disorders of the structure of bronchial layers, increased bronchial secretion and intermittent bacterial infections. The disease may be congenital or acquired. Men have more disease than women with the rate of 4 males / 1 female.
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You may have known a relative or friend, formerly a normal healthy person, now hears that he has bronchiectasis. What you want to know is why from a normal person get bronchiectasis? Is it preventable?
Bronchiectasis can be either congenital or acquired, of which the disease is common, but can be prevented. Acquired bronchiectasis has two localized and diffuse forms.
The localized part of the bronchi is partially narrowed, causing an excess of fluid to form, which can easily lead to infections and cause bronchial dilatation. Diseases that cause bronchial stenosis are benign or malignant tumors, airway anomalies; primary tuberculosis, lung abscess
. Diffuse may be caused by sequelae of diseases: measles, pertussis, Arbovirus infection.
In particular, there is a rare disease called cystic fibrous pancreatitis, which causes a disorder of secretions that causes recurrent bacterial infections leading to severe bronchiectasis, chronic respiratory failure, and patients often die before reaching adulthood.
Chemical bronchiectasis: People who work with chemicals for a long time, inhale chemicals into the airways, they cause irritation, increase secretion and damage the structure of bronchial walls, causing coughing and increasing pressure. In the heart of the bronchi leads to bronchiectasis.
Congenital bronchodilation may be encountered in polycystic pulmonary disease, often in combination with multiple renal, pancreatic and hepatic cocoons; Immune synovial immunity.
Cellular immunodeficiency: seen in Kartagener syndrome, bronchiectasis in combination with visceral islands and sore sinus, and sinus cavity
Manifestations of bronchiectasis
If you pay attention, it is easy to see a person with bronchiectasis due to the following manifestations: sputum sputum, seen in 80% of patients with bronchiectasis, who often cough up sputum most often in the morning, or sometimes sputum spreads throughout the day
The amount of sputum more or less depending on the patient, often sputum: from 20-100 ml / day, more during exacerbation.
Sputum in bronchiectasis has plaster smell, sometimes has a bad smell, if left to settle there will be 4 layers from top to bottom are: foam, mucus clear, purulent sputum, mucus mucus.
However, some people with bronchiectasis do not cough up sputum. Cough is often accompanied by sputum. You can easily see patients "coughing all year round". About 8% of patients cough up blood.
Coughing up blood in the form of: red blood cells during the course of inflammation coughing up more blood, reddening means bleeding when complications occur; Shortness of breath; Recurrent lung infections; Pleural effusion. In long-term ill people, you may see drumstick fingers.
The disease has complications: lobar pneumonia, bronchial bronchitis, pulmonary abscess, pleural effusion, tuberculosis, cerebral abscess, hemoptysis .
.. After many years of development, it will lead to chronic respiratory failure and chronic heart failure, The patient may die after several years.
Things to do to avoid getting sick
The treatment of bronchiectasis is difficult, time-consuming and costly. Depending on the type of disease and stage of injury, use appropriate treatment such as draining posture to remove pus; using antibiotics according to antibiotics, ie sputum culture to find bacteria and then using antibiotics that effectively kill bacteria; Surgery to remove the area of the lung with bronchiectasis.
So the following things to do to avoid getting sick are essential for everyone.
- You should give your family, especially children vaccinated against the flu, because when you have the flu, the body's resistance will be reduced, it will be more susceptible to infections in the nose, throat, throat and respiratory tract. The result is bronchiectasis.
- Parents should have their children fully vaccinated The expanded vaccination program to prevent diseases: tuberculosis, measles, diphtheria, pertussis because if children have these diseases, it is easy for them to get bronchiectasis in adulthood.
- When you or your loved one suffers from congenital or acquired diseases such as bronchial polyps, airway anomalies, benign or malignant tumors in the lungs, primary tuberculosis, pulmonary abscess, pneumonia, acute bronchitis and chronic, ear, nose and throat infections ... need to be completely cured, thus avoiding sequelae that cause bronchiectasis later.
- For people working in the environment exposed to volatile chemicals, it is necessary to use labor protection devices such as masks, glasses or gas masks.
Establishment owners must take measures to ventilate the workspace such as using ventilation fans, opening multiple doors to create ventilation for the office, using a vacuum, chemical vapor ..
. to avoid bronchiectasis due to breathe in chemicals.
- Daily oral hygiene, wearing a mask when going out or in public places, to avoid transmission of respiratory diseases, prevent the consequences of bronchiectasis..
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