Why Are Bacteria Resistant?

After the outbreak of E. coli, many people died and some died in European countries, where developed medicine raised a question about why bacteria seem to be susceptible. eradicated by this antibiotic can be resistant?
Resistance is due to "genes"
Antibiotics are drugs that attack the body of bacteria in order to destroy them. It acts as a weapon to prevent the life of this microorganism. But today, more and more types of bacteria are resistant and more and more drugs are resistant. Why are bacteria able to recognize antibiotics and resist?
Antibiotics are a unique drug that can effectively kill the bacteria. It has saved millions of people around the world. However, the problem of antibiotic resistance is becoming a headache, aching and topical issue, WHO has to warn that action must be taken today or there will be no medicine tomorrow


Since the first case of antibiotic resistance in 1947, bacterial resistance to antibiotics has been spreading.


Why Are Bacteria Resistant?

The spread of antibiotic resistance is not only geographically, but also in terms of types of bacteria and resistant drugs.
More and more bacteria are resistant to drugs
Antibiotic resistance has spread from one region to another, making it a global problem. Not only countries with underdevelopment and poor hygiene have resistance to antibiotics, but even developed countries such as the United Kingdom, France, and Germany have resistance to antibiotics.
More and more types of bacteria are resistant. Initially, there was only one resistant bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. But today there are many species of bacteria with this characteristic, such as Pusudomonas aeruginosa, gram-positive anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium spp, meningococcal bacteria Neisseria meningitidis, pneumococcus .
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Why Are Bacteria Resistant?


Bacterial resistance to bacteria is basically genetic. That is, "natural" bacteria have resistance genes in their cells. Thanks to the resistance gene, bacteria have the ability to resist the effects of antibiotics. And thanks to that they can survive and continue to cause disease. The problem is, how do bacteria get this resistance gene?
How to make resistance genes?
As mentioned above, resistance can be said to be based on the emergence of resistance genes. But it is not "natural" that bacteria get this dangerous piece of gene. Obtaining resistance genes is caused by one of the following:
The first is due to mutations, which is the antibiotic that mutates the bacterial genetic material system, causing the physical system to mutate. Specifically, the DNA of bacteria has been modified.


Why Are Bacteria Resistant?

This variation is in the direction of resistance to antibiotics and the altered gene is called resistance gene.
With resistant bacteria, the drug is nothing to be afraid of
It is not easy that bacteria get this mutation. The mutation only occurs when the drug is used in irregular doses and the bacteria can survive treatment. These "surviving" bacteria will recognize, sensitize and transform DNA to counteract the effects of antibiotics. And so resistance genes were created. Basically, this is the main way to create resistance. However, the mutation itself is not the dominant way to cause rapid spread of resistance.
The second is due to the crossbreeding of animal bacteria with human bacteria.


Why Are Bacteria Resistant?

That is, the bacteria that cause disease in humans acquires resistance genes because they receive resistance genes from the bacterial flora in animals. This process takes place in the following order: Initially, the bacteria stuck to the drug-resistant animals. Then, for some reason, they penetrate into the human body.
These mutated bacteria will transmit resistance genes by the gene transfer mechanism to the bacteria in humans. The carrier of a resistance gene from animal bacteria to human bacteria is a "semi-living organism" called a plasmid. As a result, bacteria are resistant to drugs.
Thirdly, there is the transfer of drug resistance genes between bacteria on one nation's territory to another in other countries through travelers. Initially, travelers had drug-resistant bacteria.


Why Are Bacteria Resistant?

They went to another country, bringing with them all the bacteria.
These bacteria will transmit resistance genes to healthy bacteria in the infected country. The end result is to create a strain of resistant bacteria in the second country itself and from there could spread drug resistance globally.
How are genes resistant to drugs?
From a cellular perspective, the nucleus that helps bacteria become resistant are the resistance genes in the DNA genome. The resistance genes will help bacteria resist drugs in one of four ways: avoiding antibiotic penetration into cells, synthesizing inactivated enzymes or antibiotic degradation, changing metabolic pathways and pumping resistance. born from the cell.
Research is needed to ensure that medication is available to repress the bacteria.

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