Decoding Genome Of 3,000-year-old Plants

Orchid, living in the Namib desert, Africa, was on earth since dinosaurs. Under the harsh weather conditions, the individuals of this species can still live up to 3,000 years of age.02: 00/4: 43 Southern region of the desert in southern Africa, Namibia is surrounded by SA Mac Namib is arid. However, disintegration, plants here still carry separate impressive features. In particular, it is necessary to mention the Bach Lan species (English name is Welwitschia Mirabilis) has a two-way on earth

. Austrian botanical house, Frederich Welwitsch, was the first to discover this species in 1859. Estimates, the average life of Bach Lan tree is 500-600 years. But some individuals may have been 1,500 or 3,000 years old
The researchers have found the ruins of the Bach Lan tree since dinosaurs. Later, the name of the botanist Frederich Welwitsch made the name for this special tree. They only existed in Namib desert, in the Anglola region and without relatives. Bach Lan is the only ceiling plant in the Welwitschiales, which is only Welwitschia, they welwitschiaceae and the welwitschiales according to the ceiling plant classification. This trees can live more than 1,000 years to be considered by indigenous people "Live fossils". Development in harsh desert conditions, Bach Lan seems rugged. In group of dwarfs or shrubs, Bach Lan has a reverse cone body, an average height is 50cm. The tallest tree can be up to 180cm. The reason for the Bach Lan tree has a reverse cone due to the head of the tree cannot rise to the hot sun, forcing the body to grow horizontally. From the birth, Bach Lan has only 2 leaves
Over 1,000 years, these two leaves continue to grow, stretching to the two sides. But the weather, the desert environment made the leaves quickly wilt while the leaves fiber, torn into a lot of pieces, the leaves were twisted back to the trunk. It is estimated that without the devastating climate, the Lan tree leaves can be 14m long. So at first glance, people can imagine trees with many leaves and named "the desert octopus". Some of the hypotheses said that these leaves cover cool for the soil below the trunk, Slow down the evaporation process and protect the root system. Insects and animals on the desert also considered this a hiding place or a cool shadow. Leaf face with a corile, or breathing hole, to adjust the process of gas exchange and steam escape. In the daytime, leaves will keep the air closed to prevent the escape of water. At night, they will open to carbon dioxide intrusion and photosynthesis. Stagnant water on leaves will roll down the trunk and drip to the ground to root roots absorbed. Especially, Bach Lan can adjust pigments on the leaves. When it was hot, the leaves would produce red pigments to protect the tree from the solar radiation. When the temperature drops or when the tree has a lot of water, the leaves will form many chlorophyll, creating green pigments to photosynthesis. Lan is bisexual. They have just contained ovalgia and pollen grains, and pollination. The hypothesis says that this plant is pollinated by beetles or hypery fruits.Ha Lan leaves are fragmented due to harsh climates. The genome is thousands of years of a new study posted in Nature Communications magazine Seeing, scientists have discovered some of the mystery of the genes of the Bach Lan species. Specifically, Mr. Andrew Leitch, plant genetics at Queen Mary University (England), co-author, indicating that the genome of Bach Lan developed in accordance with the surrounding environmental conditions. It is a arid environment, lacks nutrients so Bach Lan's genes must also adapt to it. About 86 million years ago, the dry period increased and prolonged drought, due to a malfunction when separation, Bach Lan genome has duplicated. This may also be the time when the Namib desert is formed. Before this duplication, genes are released from the original functions to receive new functions. In addition, Bach Lan is forced to duplicate DNA to separate large genome, which causes a lot of energy to maintain life. In the context of arid desert, if it consumes as much energy, plants will easily be eliminated. Great genes of Bach Lan species are DNA chains of "garbage", also called a displacement factor Reverse (scientific name is retrotransposon). The transparency factor in Bach Lan gene increases from about 1-2 million years ago due to the skyrocketing desert temperature.Do, the genome is genetically changed, to control the DNA to duplicate through the process DNA methylation. This overdue helps Bach Lan recreates an outstanding efficiency gene. Also, previously, researchers already knew that the head of the trunk was dead so the leaves often grow from the top or side. However, new research detects leaves usually growing from basic births, vulnerability of trees is also a place to create new cells for plant development. Genetic numbers increase to help leaves and trees Speeding the metabolism process, thereby helping cell growth. Fighting ability with harsh conditions of plants is also accreted,

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